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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular characterization of CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) of woodchuck (Marmota monax).

Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax) became an important animal model to study the immunological processes in hepatitis B virus infection. To facilitate further study of T-cell responses in this model, we cloned and sequenced the cDNAs of Woodchuck CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), which play important roles for the regulation of T-cell activation by delivering the costimulation signals. According to the deduced amino-acid sequences, Woodchuck CD28 showed a similarity of 70% to 80% to its mammalian homologues. Woodchuck CTLA-4 has a higher similarity of 74% to 85% to corresponding mammalian CTLA-4 molecules. The strict conservation of critical amino-acid residues like cystein and asparagine residues in Woodchuck CD28 and CTLA-4 suggests that both molecules may structurally resemble their human or mouse homologues. A hexapeptide motif, MYPPPY, which has been supposed to be essential for the interaction with CD80, is present in both Woodchuck CD28 and CTLA-4. The cloned cDNAs of Woodchuck CD28 and CTLA-4 were placed under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter of the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3. Both proteins were expressed and detected by respective crossreactive antibodies in transiently transfected mammalian cells. By immunohistochemical staining with these antibodies, CD28 and CTLA-4 were also detected on cultured woodchuck peripheral blood lymphocytes. The molecular characterization of Woodchuck CD28 and CTLA-4 will facilitate studies on the T-cell response to hepadnavirus in the woodchuck model.[1]


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