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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lysine 274 is essential for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

Lysine 274 is conserved in all known fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase sequences. It has been implicated in substrate binding and/or catalysis on the basis of reactivity with pyridoxal phosphate as well as by x-ray crystallographic analysis. Lys274 of rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was mutated to alanine by the polymerase chain reaction, and the T7-RNA polymerase-transcribed construct containing the mutant sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli. The mutant and wild-type forms of the enzyme were purified to homogeneity, and their specific activity, substrate dependence, and inhibition by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and AMP were compared. While the mutant exhibited no change in maximal velocity, its Km for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was 20-fold higher than that of the wild-type, and its Ki for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was increased 1000-fold. Consistent with the unaltered maximal velocity, there were no apparent difference between the secondary structure of the wild-type and mutant enzyme forms, as measured by circular dichroism and ultraviolet difference spectroscopy. The Ki for the allosteric inhibitor AMP was only slightly increased, indicating that Lys274 is not directly involved in AMP inhibition. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate potentiated AMP inhibition of both forms, but 500-fold higher concentrations of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were needed to reduce the Ki for AMP for the mutant compared to the wild-type. However, potentiation of AMP inhibition of the Lys274----Ala mutant was evident at fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentrations (approximately 100 microM) well below those that inhibited the enzyme, which suggests that fructose 2,6-bisphosphate interacts either with the AMP site directly or with other residues involved in the active site-AMP synergy. The results also demonstrate that although Lys274 is an important binding site determinant for sugar bisphosphates, it plays a more significant role in binding fructose 2,6-bisphosphate than fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, probably because it binds the 2-phospho group of the former while other residues bind the 1-phospho group of the substrate. It is concluded that the enzyme utilizes Lys274 to discriminate between its substrate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.[1]


  1. Lysine 274 is essential for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. el-Maghrabi, M.R., Austin, L.R., Correia, J.J., Pilkis, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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