The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Catecholamines and self-stimulation: evidence suggesting a reinforcing role for noradrenaline and a motivating role for dopamine.

Investigation of the role of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in self-stimulation showed that d-amphetamine (which releases more DA than does l-amphetamine, but not more NA) was much more effective than l-amphetamine in enhancing self-stimulation of NA sites in the locus coeruleus and near-lateral hypothalamus. In DA sites in the substantia nigra and far-lateral hypothalamus the effects of the 2 isomers were confirmed to be more nearly equal. Thymoxamine HCl (10 mg/kg IP), a specific alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, depressed self-stimulation at all sites, but significantly more severely at DA sites. Thus the drugs most effective in influencing self-stimulation at a particular site were those acting predominantly on the unstimulated system. These findings were interpreted in terms of a hypothesis that DA and NA play complementary roles in self-stimulation and that both are essential; or, more specifically, that DA pathways, implicated in other motivational activites, contribute to a state of drive or arousal necessary for self-stimulation; while response-contingent noradrenergic activity (elicited by the electrodes directly via a transsynaptic route) mediates reinforcement. Further predictions from this hypothesis were tested as follows: (1) Direct pharmacological stimulants of adrenergic alpha-receptors should disrupt self-stimulation by acting randomly on the reinforcement system and disrupting response-reward contingencies; this was confirmed by the finding that the alpha-receptor stimulant clonidine HCl (0.05 mg/kg) depressed self-stimulation at all sites tested. (2) Drect stimulants of DA receptors should enhance self-stimulation of NA sites by augmenting dopaminergic motivational activity; but in rats with DA electrodes, noncontingent stimulation of DA receptors would also impose similar noncontingent activity on the transsynaptic noradrenergic reinforcement pathways and thus depress self-stimulation; this was confirmed by the finding that apomorphine (0.3-1.0 mg/kg) was strongly stimulant for NA electrodes but strongly depressant for DA electrodes, and that the degree and direction of these effects was highly correlated with the differential effects of d- l-amphetamine (rho = .65, p less than 0.01). Neither effect of apomorphine depended on the occurrence of motor stereotypy. These results can be interpreted in terms of 2-component models for self-stimulation, with the predominant transmitter of the drive component being identified as DA and that g the reinforcing component as NA.[1]

References

 
WikiGenes - Universities