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MeSH Review

Self Stimulation

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Disease relevance of Self Stimulation


Psychiatry related information on Self Stimulation


High impact information on Self Stimulation

  • One behavioural paradigm that supports this hypothesis is intracranial self-stimulation (ICS), during which animals repeatedly press a lever to stimulate their own dopamine-releasing neurons electrically [9].
  • Lithium differentially antagonises self-stimulation facilitated by morphine and (+)-amphetamine [10].
  • Transplants of embryonic substantia nigra reinnervated the striatum and were able to sustain intracranial self-stimulation in rats with brain lesions induced by 6-hydroxydopamine [11].
  • These and other data indicate that the enhancer mediates scute self-stimulation, although only in the presence of additional activating factors, which most likely interact with conserved motifs reminiscent of NF-kappaB-binding sites [12].
  • Proneural gene self-stimulation in neural precursors: an essential mechanism for sense organ development that is regulated by Notch signaling [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Self Stimulation


Biological context of Self Stimulation


Anatomical context of Self Stimulation


Gene context of Self Stimulation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Self Stimulation


  1. A novel class of potential central nervous system agents. 3-Phenyl-2-(1-piperazinyl)-5H-1-benzazepines. Hino, K., Nagai, Y., Uno, H., Masuda, Y., Oka, M., Karasawa, T. J. Med. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. The potential antipsychotic activity of the partial dopamine receptor agonist (+)N-0437. Timmerman, W., Tepper, P.G., Bohus, B.G., Horn, A.S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. d-Fenfluramine and self-stimulation: loss of inhibitory effect in underweight rats. McClelland, R.C., Hoebel, B.G. Brain Res. Bull. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Task-specific effects of nicotine in rats. Intracranial self-stimulation and locomotor activity. Schaefer, G.J., Michael, R.P. Neuropharmacology (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Changes in self-stimulation at stimulation-bound eating and drinking sites in the lateral hypothalamus during food or water deprivation, glucoprivation, and intracellular or extracellular dehydration. Frutiger, S.A. Behav. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. An improved pharmacological procedure for depletion of noradrenaline: pharmacology and assessment of noradrenaline-associated behaviors. Zolovick, A.J., Rossi, J., Davies, R.F., Panksepp, J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Dexfenfluramine and feeding reward. Hoebel, B.G., Hernandez, L., McClelland, R.C., Schwartz, D. Clinical neuropharmacology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of parenteral morphine and oral methadone on self-stimulation in the rat. Preshaw, R.L., Zenick, H., Stutz, R.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Dissociation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens from intracranial self-stimulation. Garris, P.A., Kilpatrick, M., Bunin, M.A., Michael, D., Walker, Q.D., Wightman, R.M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Lithium differentially antagonises self-stimulation facilitated by morphine and (+)-amphetamine. Liebman, J.M., Segal, D.S. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Nigral transplants reinnervating the dopamine-depleted neostriatum can sustain intracranial self-stimulation. Fray, P.J., Dunnett, S.B., Iversen, S.D., Björklund, A., Stenevi, U. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Proneural gene self-stimulation in neural precursors: an essential mechanism for sense organ development that is regulated by Notch signaling. Culí, J., Modolell, J. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Role for hypocretin in mediating stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Boutrel, B., Kenny, P.J., Specio, S.E., Martin-Fardon, R., Markou, A., Koob, G.F., de Lecea, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Neurochemical correlates of brain-stimulation reward measured by ex vivo and in vivo analyses. Phillips, A.G., Blaha, C.D., Fibiger, H.C. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Anxiety, anxiolytics and brain stimulation reinforcement. Liebman, J.M. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Two substrates for medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation: myelinated axons and dopamine axons. Yeomans, J.S. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Serotonin uptake inhibitors: effects on motivated consummatory behaviors. Amit, Z., Smith, B.R., Gill, K. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Interactions of naloxone with morphine, amphetamine and phencyclidine on fixed interval responding for intracranial self-stimulation in rats. Schaefer, G.J., Michael, R.P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The pharmacological profile of iloperidone, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent. Szewczak, M.R., Corbett, R., Rush, D.K., Wilmot, C.A., Conway, P.G., Strupczewski, J.T., Cornfeldt, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Intracranial self-stimulation increases differentially in vivo hydroxylation of tyrosine but similarly in vivo hydroxylation of tryptophan in rat medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum. Nakahara, D., Nakamura, M., Furukawa, H., Furuno, N. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Modelling drug kinetics with brain stimulation: dopamine antagonists increase self-stimulation. Lepore, M., Franklin, K.B. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. A role for dopamine in the psychopharmacology of electrical self-stimulation. Cooper, B.R., Breese, G.R. National Institute on Drug Abuse research monograph series. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Facilitation of self-stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in rats following chronic administration of spiroperidol or amphetamine. Robertson, A., Mogenson, G.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Sex difference in reward asymmetry and effects of cocaine. Glick, S.D., Badalamenti, J.I. Neuropharmacology (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Lack of glucocorticoids attenuates the self-stimulation-induced increase in the in vivo synthesis rate of dopamine but not serotonin in the rat nucleus accumbens. Nakahara, D., Nakamura, M., Oki, Y., Ishida, Y. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Enhanced dopamine receptor activation in accumbens and frontal cortex has opposite effects on medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation. Olds, M.E. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Intracranial self-stimulation induces Fos expression in GABAergic neurons in the rat mesopontine tegmentum. Nakahara, D., Ishida, Y., Nakamura, M., Furuno, N., Nishimori, T. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of the proneural gene achaete by helix-loop-helix proteins. Martínez, C., Modolell, J., Garrell, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulation of EGF receptor expression by differentiating agents in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Murphy, L.D., Valverius, E.M., Tsokos, M., Mickley, L.A., Rosen, N., Bates, S.E. Cancer Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. CRF and urocortin decreased brain stimulation reward in the rat: reversal by a CRF receptor antagonist. Macey, D.J., Koob, G.F., Markou, A. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of intracerebroventricular and systemic injections of caerulein, a CCK analogue, on electrical self-stimulation and its interaction with the CCKA receptor antagonist, L-364,718 (MK-329). Hamilton, M.H., Rose, I.C., Herberg, L.J., de Belleroche, J.S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of various inhibitors of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase on rat self-stimulation after reserpine treatment. Stinus, L., Thierry, A.M., Cardo, B. Psychopharmacologia. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Bromocriptine reverses the elevation in intracranial self-stimulation thresholds observed in a rat model of cocaine withdrawal. Markou, A., Koob, G.F. Neuropsychopharmacology (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Mediation by neurotensin-receptors of effects of neurotensin on self-stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex. Fernández, R., Sabater, R., Sáez, J.A., Montes, R., Alba, F., Ferrer, J.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Extracellular dopamine dynamics in rat caudate-putamen during experimenter-delivered and intracranial self-stimulation. Kilpatrick, M.R., Rooney, M.B., Michael, D.J., Wightman, R.M. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Dopamine and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of rat following lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation. You, Z.B., Chen, Y.Q., Wise, R.A. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Ventral pallidum self-stimulation induces stimulus dependent increase in c-fos expression in reward-related brain regions. Panagis, G., Nomikos, G.G., Miliaressis, E., Chergui, K., Kastellakis, A., Svensson, T.H., Spyraki, C. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
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