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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characteristics of large neutral amino acid-induced release of preloaded L-glutamine from rat cerebral capillaries in vitro: effects of ammonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitors.

The release of newly loaded L-[14C]glutamine (L-Gln) from rat cerebral cortical capillaries was stimulated by L-transport system substrates: tryptophan (TRY), leucine (leu), and nonlabeled L-Gln, respectively, by 32, 50, and 40% above the basal release resulting from superfusion with standard Krebs-Henseliet buffer. However, no stimulation was observed upon treatment with D-Gln or L-glutamate (L-Glu), which are not the L-system substrates, or with ammonium chloride. The stimulatory effect of TRY was temperature dependent but sodium independent, and was abolished in the presence of a sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The results support the view that the L-Gln-stimulated uptake of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) across the blood-brain barrier involves the L-system mediated Gln-LNAA exchange. The TRY-stimulated Gln release was enhanced in vitro by simultaneous addition of ammonium chloride, and in capillaries derived from rats with acute hepatic encephalopathy (HE). These results confirm the role of Gln-LNAA exchange in the excessive accumulation of LNAA in brain observed in a variety of hyperammonemic conditions. Superfusion of L-Gln-loaded capillaries in a buffer containing gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitors, serine borate (SB) or 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON), increased the basal L-Gln release and made it irresponsive to subsequent treatment with TRY. However, the basal release was also increased by superfusion with serine alone or Leu, and this treatment abolished the subsequent effect of TRY as well. Moreover, DON stimulated L-Gln release from capillaries superfused in a standard way, and the effects of DON and TRY were additive. Hence, in the present conditions, SB and DON acted as L-system substrates rather than as GGT inhibitors. Taken together, the results do not support the concept that GGT mediates the Gln-LNAA exchange.[1]


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