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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparative teratogenicity of nine retinoids in the rat.

he comparative teratogenicity of nine retinoids in Wistar rats was investigated. The compounds studied and dose levels tested (mg/kg) were: all-trans-retinoic acid (TRA), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100; etretinate (ETR), 25, 50; acitretin (ACIT), 25, 50; 13-cis-retinoic acid (13CRA), 100, 200; and five retinamides, each at 300 and 600 mg/kg, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4HPR); N-tetrazol-5-ylretinamide (TZR); N-butylretinamide (NBR); N-ethylretinamide (NER); 13-cis-N-ethylretinamide (13CNER). Retinoids were administered by oral intubation on days 10 and 11 post coitum (p.c.). Dams were killed on day 22 p.c. and examinations carried out to assess teratogenic potential. TRA, ETR, ACIT, 13CRA and 4HPR increased the incidence of resorptions. The incidence of abnormal fetuses, irrespective of the specific abnormalities induced, was markedly increased (50-100%) by TRA, ETR, ACIT, 13CRA and 4HPR, whereas TZR and NBR caused moderate increases (20-50%), and NER and 13CNER induced mild increases (10-20%). The incidences of CNS, craniofacial and urinogenital defects were generally high with TRA, ETR, ACIT and 13CRA. Cardiac vessel defects were markedly increased by 4HPR. Using a number of criteria, a generalized ranking order of the toxicity of the compounds was drawn up: TRA > ETR > ACIT > 13CRA > 4HPR > TZR identical to NBR > NER identical to 13CNER. The ranked order of relative in-vivo teratogenicity for the nine retinoids is compared with a previously reported in-vitro assessment of the compounds using a rat whole embryo culture technique.[1]


  1. Comparative teratogenicity of nine retinoids in the rat. Turton, J.A., Willars, G.B., Haselden, J.N., Ward, S.J., Steele, C.E., Hicks, R.M. International journal of experimental pathology. (1992) [Pubmed]
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