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Chemical Compound Review

Acitretin     (2E,4E,6E,8E)-9-(4-methoxy- 2,3,6-trimethyl...

Synonyms: Etretin, Soriatane, Acitretina, Acitretine, Isoetretin, ...
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Disease relevance of Acitretin


Psychiatry related information on Acitretin


High impact information on Acitretin

  • We also report that the -460 VEGF polymorphism appears to have a clinical pharmacogenetic role in predicting response or non-response of psoriasis to acitretin (P = 0.01) [6].
  • A panel of retinoids (all-trans-, 13-cis-, 19-cis retinoic acid and acitretin), and interferon-alpha-2a was tested for the capacity to modulate the proliferation of UT-DEC-1 (HPV-33-positive) and UT-DEC-2 (HPV-16-positive) cell lines derived from vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasias (VAIN) [7].
  • The effects of several other retinoids, including Ro15-0778, etretinate, Ro13-7410, etarotene, Ro40-8757, 13-cis-retinoic acid and acitretin, were also studied to determine their effects on EGF binding and ODC activity [8].
  • Rapid effect of treatment of psoriatic erythrocytes with the synthetic retinoid acitretin to increase 8-azido cyclic AMP binding to the RI regulatory subunit [9].
  • As judged from the dose- and body-weight-normalized AUC values (AUCcor) there was a great inter-individual variation (sixfold) in the systemic availability of acitretin [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acitretin


Biological context of Acitretin


Anatomical context of Acitretin


Associations of Acitretin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acitretin

  • Five out of 6 patients with KRT10 mutations benefited from treatment with oral acitretin (5-25mg/day) or topical tretinoin/tazarotene, but none of the patients with KRT1 mutations derived any benefit [26].
  • In this report, we present the case of a 65-year-old man with a 9-year history of recalcitrant ACH who demonstrated significant and sustained clinical improvement when etanercept, a competitive inhibitor of TNF-alpha, was added to his treatment regimen of acitretin and topical corticosteroids over a 12-week period [27].
  • We report a patient with severe sporadic DD, who did not respond adequately to repeated courses of orally administered acitretin and isotretinoin [28].
  • The Etretin effects on intracellular K5 staining paralleled those on cell-surface ICAM-1 [29].
  • In contrast, acitretin had no significant effect on intracellular retinoid concentrations in those neuroblastoma cell lines that showed little or no induction of CRABP after RA treatment [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acitretin

  • Based on these findings, we conclude that IFN plus oral photochemotherapy is superior to IFN plus acitretin, inducing more complete remissions in patients with CTCL stages I and II [30].
  • In this study, we determined the effect of oral administration of acitretin in four psoriatic patients on the altered cAMP binding observed with the RI regulatory subunit of PKA in erythrocytes prepared from these patients [9].
  • Addition of 10(-6)M acitretin at various times also revealed that its presence at cell culture initiation was necessary to inhibit proliferation significantly [20].
  • Of these patients, 32 received standard UVB phototherapy without acitretin [31].
  • High-performance liquid chromatography determination of acitretin in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in human subjects [32].


  1. Remission of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with combined calcitriol and acitretin. French, L.E., Ramelet, A.A., Saurat, J.H. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention of skin cancer and reduction of keratotic skin lesions during acitretin therapy in renal transplant recipients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Bavinck, J.N., Tieben, L.M., Van der Woude, F.J., Tegzess, A.M., Hermans, J., ter Schegget, J., Vermeer, B.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Conversion of acitretin to etretinate in psoriatic patients is influenced by ethanol. Larsen, F.G., Jakobsen, P., Knudsen, J., Weismann, K., Kragballe, K., Nielsen-Kudsk, F. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Acitretin is converted to etretinate only during concomitant alcohol intake. Grønhøj Larsen, F., Steinkjer, B., Jakobsen, P., Hjorter, A., Brockhoff, P.B., Nielsen-Kudsk, F. Br. J. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Multiple cutaneous squamous carcinoma in a psoriatic associated with ciclosporin, alcohol abuse and ultraviolet radiation exposure which were suppressed by acitretin. Agnew, K.L., Bunker, C.B. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Interaction between genetic control of vascular endothelial growth factor production and retinoid responsiveness in psoriasis. Young, H.S., Summers, A.M., Read, I.R., Fairhurst, D.A., Plant, D.J., Campalani, E., Smith, C.H., Barker, J.N., Detmar, M.J., Brenchley, P.E., Griffiths, C.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Anti-proliferative effect of retinoids and interferon-alpha-2a on vaginal cell lines derived from squamous intra-epithelial lesions. Hietanen, S., Auvinen, E., Syrjänen, K., Syrjänen, S. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of the induction of ornithine decarboxylase in keratinocytes by retinoids. Zheng, Z.S., Xue, G.Z., Prystowsky, J.H. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid effect of treatment of psoriatic erythrocytes with the synthetic retinoid acitretin to increase 8-azido cyclic AMP binding to the RI regulatory subunit. Raynaud, F., Gerbaud, P., Bouloc, A., Gorin, I., Anderson, W.B., Evain-Brion, D. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of retinoids in skin diseases. Larsen, F.G., Nielsen-Kudsk, F., Jakobsen, P., Weismann, K., Kragballe, K. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-induced skin irritation on in vitro percutaneous absorption of four drugs. Wilhelm, K.P., Surber, C., Maibach, H.I. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Systemic sequential therapy of psoriasis: a new paradigm for improved therapeutic results. Koo, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of addition of calcipotriol ointment (50 micrograms/g) to acitretin therapy in psoriasis. van de Kerkhof, P.C., Cambazard, F., Hutchinson, P.E., Haneke, E., Wong, E., Souteyrand, P., Damstra, R.J., Combemale, P., Neumann, M.H., Chalmers, R.J., Olsen, L., Revuz, J. Br. J. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas in a psoriatic patient following high-dose photochemotherapy and cyclosporin treatment: response to long-term acitretin maintenance. van de Kerkhof, P.C., de Rooij, M.J. Br. J. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and acitretin on the proliferation, lipid synthesis and keratin expression of cultured human sebocytes in vitro. Zouboulis, C.C., Korge, B., Akamatsu, H., Xia, L.Q., Schiller, S., Gollnick, H., Orfanos, C.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Increasing the intracellular availability of all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cells. Armstrong, J.L., Ruiz, M., Boddy, A.V., Redfern, C.P., Pearson, A.D., Veal, G.J. Br. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The pharmacokinetics of acitretin and its 13-cis-metabolite in psoriatic patients. Larsen, F.G., Jakobsen, P., Eriksen, H., Grønhøj, J., Kragballe, K., Nielsen-Kudsk, F. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Food increases the bioavailability of acitretin. McNamara, P.J., Jewell, R.C., Jensen, B.K., Brindley, C.J. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Human dermal fibroblasts modulate the effects of retinoids on epidermal growth. Sanquer, S., Coulomb, B., Lebreton, C., Dubertret, L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Synthetic retinoids inhibit the antigen presenting properties of epidermal cells in vitro. Dupuy, P., Bagot, M., Heslan, M., Dubertret, L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of retinoids on nuclear retinoic acid receptors mRNA in adipose tissue of retinol-deficient rats. Riaz-ul-Haq, n.u.l.l., Chytil, F. J. Lipid Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Retinoids and state of differentiation modulate CRABP II gene expression in a skin equivalent. Sanquer, S., Eller, M.S., Gilchrest, B.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytokine-stimulated human dermal microvascular endothelial cells produce interleukin 6--inhibition by hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, and calcitriol. Hettmannsperger, U., Detmar, M., Owsianowski, M., Tenorio, S., Kammler, H.J., Orfanos, C.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Therapy with a synthetic retinoid--(Ro 10-1670) etretin--increases the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein in nonlesional psoriatic skin. Siegenthaler, G., Saurat, J.H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro metabolism of acitretin by human liver microsomes: evidence of an acitretinoyl-coenzyme A thioester conjugate in the transesterification to etretinate. Knights, K.M., Gasser, R., Klemisch, W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Phenotypic/genotypic correlations in patients with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis and the effects of retinoid therapy on keratin expression. Virtanen, M., Gedde-Dahl, T., Mörk, N.J., Leigh, I., Bowden, P.E., Vahlquist, A. Acta Derm. Venereol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The successful use of etanercept in combination therapy for treatment of acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau. Kazinski, K., Joyce, K.M., Hodson, D. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. P160L mutation in the Ca(2+) ATPase 2A domain in a patient with severe Darier disease. Godic, A., Glavac, D., Korosec, B., Miljković, J., Potocnik, M., Kansky, A. Dermatology (Basel) (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. The state of differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes determines the level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression induced by gamma interferon. Kashihara-Sawami, M., Norris, D.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Prospective randomized multicenter clinical trial on the use of interferon -2a plus acitretin versus interferon -2a plus PUVA in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma stages I and II. Stadler, R., Otte, H.G., Luger, T., Henz, B.M., Kühl, P., Zwingers, T., Sterry, W. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Combined treatment of psoriasis with acitretin and UVB phototherapy compared with acitretin alone and UVB alone. Iest, J., Boer, J. Br. J. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of acitretin in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in human subjects. Surber, C., Laugier, J.P., Geiger, J.M., Bun, H., Durand, A., Maibach, H.I. Pharm. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
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