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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase cascades enhances NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription in BCG- stimulated macrophages through promotion of p65/ p300 binding.

The proinflammatory response of infected macrophages is an important early host defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection. Mycobacteria have been demonstrated to induce proinflammatory gene transcription through the Toll-like receptors, (TLR)2 and TLR 4, which initiate signaling cascades leading to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. The main transduction pathway responsible for NF-kappaB activation has been established and involves the MyD88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, and inhibitor of kappaB kinase complex. The role of other kinase cascades triggered by mycobacteria in the NF-kappaB activation is less clear. We herein examine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) cascades in the expression of the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) mycobacteria- induced NF-kappaB-dependent genes, macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Specific pharmacological inhibition of the PI-3K, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and to a smaller extent, p38 MAPK but not extracellular- regulated kinase ( ERK), suppressed NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription and MIP-2 and NO secretion in BCG-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. A similar effect was obtained following molecular inhibition of JNK via JNK-interacting protein-1 overexpression. In addition, a kinase-dead mutant of MEK kinase-1, the up-stream regulator of JNK, also proved to be a potent inhibitor of NF-kappaB-reporter activity. The effect of inhibitors was mediated by the down-regulation of NF-kappaB transcription activity and without effecting its nuclear translocation. These data suggest an indirect mechanism of the NF-kappaB regulation by these kinases, probably through p65 phosphorylation and improved binding to the p300 transcription coactivator. The data obtained demonstrate that PI-3K, JNK, and p38 MAPK activation by mycobacteria enhance NF-kappaB-driven gene expression contributing to the proinflammatory macrophage response.[1]


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