The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Essential involvement of IFN-gamma in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis.

Clostridium difficile has emerged as the important causative agent of antibiotics-associated pseudomembranous colitis; especially its toxin A is presumed to be responsible for the colitis. We examined the pathophysiological roles of IFN-gamma in toxin A-induced enteritis using IFN-gamma knockout (KO) mice. When toxin A of C. difficile was injected into the ileal loops of BALB/c wild-type (WT) mice, massive fluid secretion, disruption of intestinal epithelial structure, and massive neutrophil infiltration developed within 4 h after the injection. IFN-gamma protein was faintly detected in some CD3-positive lymphocytes in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileum of untreated WT mice. On the contrary, at 2 and 4 h after toxin A injection, IFN-gamma protein was detected in infiltrating neutrophils and to a lesser degree in CD3-positive lymphocytes. In the ileum of WT mice, toxin A treatment markedly enhanced the gene expression of TNF-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and -2, KC, and ICAM-1 >2 h after treatment. In contrast, the histopathological changes were marginal, without enhanced fluid secretion in the ileum of toxin A-treated IFN-gamma KO mice. Moreover, toxin A-induced gene expression of TNF-alpha, neutrophil chemotactic chemokines, and ICMA-1 was remarkably attenuated in IFN-gamma KO mice. Furthermore, pretreatment of WT mice with a neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma Ab prevented toxin A-induced enteritis. These observations indicate that IFN-gamma is the crucial mediator of toxin A-induced acute enteritis and suggest that IFN-gamma is an important molecular target for the control of C. difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis.[1]


  1. Essential involvement of IFN-gamma in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Ishida, Y., Maegawa, T., Kondo, T., Kimura, A., Iwakura, Y., Nakamura, S., Mukaida, N. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities