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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced prostaglandin E2 production in human fibroblasts: role of cyclooxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin-1beta.

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanism of basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), to identify the signaling pathway involved in the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 ( COX-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) by BCP crystals, to examine the effect of BCP crystals on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA expression, and to investigate the potential of phosphocitrate to abrogate the BCP crystal-induced effects. METHODS: PGE(2) levels were quantified using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. COX-2 and COX-1 transcript levels were quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Induction of IL-1beta and COX-2 mRNA was examined by end-point RT-PCR. COX-2 protein expression was assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS: PGE(2) production measured 4 and 30 hours after BCP crystal treatment was higher in BCP crystal-treated (mean +/- SEM 1,891 +/- 273 pg/microg and 1,792 +/- 233 pg/microg, respectively) than in untreated (88 +/- 5 pg/microg and 205 +/- 93 pg/microg, respectively) HFFs. The PGE(2) produced after 4 hours was sensitive to inhibition with NS398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, implying that it was COX-2 mediated, whereas the PGE(2) produced at 30 hours could not be completely inhibited by NS398. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a 23-fold increase in COX-2 mRNA that was maximal at 4 hours, whereas analysis of mRNA for COX-1 showed up-regulation of transcript peaking at 24 hours poststimulation (1.75-fold increase). The protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signal-transduction inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and LY294002, respectively, blocked BCP crystal-induced COX-2 mRNA in HFFs. In addition, BCP crystals were found to up-regulate the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta (maximal at 8 hours). The induction of both COX-2 and IL-1beta by BCP crystals was attenuated when the cells were treated with phosphocitrate. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BCP crystals may be an important amplifier of PGE(2) production through induction of the COX enzymes and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta.[1]


  1. Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced prostaglandin E2 production in human fibroblasts: role of cyclooxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin-1beta. Morgan, M.P., Whelan, L.C., Sallis, J.D., McCarthy, C.J., Fitzgerald, D.J., McCarthy, G.M. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
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