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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Alternating access and a pore-loop structure in the Na+-citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a secondary transporter that transports citrate in symport with 2 Na(+) ions. Reaction of Cys-398 and Cys-414, which are located in a cytoplasmic loop of the protein that is believed to be involved in catalysis, with thiol reagents resulted in significant inhibition of uptake activity. The reactivity of the two residues was determined in single Cys mutants in different catalytic states of the transporter and from both sides of the membrane. The single Cys mutants were shown to have the same transport stoichiometry as wild type CitS, but the C398S mutation was responsible for a 10-fold loss of affinity for Na(+). Both cysteine residues were accessible from the periplasmic as well as from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane by the membrane-impermeable thiol reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET) suggesting that the residues are part of the translocation site. Binding of citrate to the outward facing binding site of the transporter resulted in partial protection against inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas binding to the inward facing binding site resulted in essentially complete protection. A 10-fold higher concentration of citrate was required at the cytoplasmic rather than at the periplasmic side of the membrane to promote protection. Only marginal effects of citrate binding were seen on reactivity with MTSET. Binding of Na(+) at the periplasmic side of the transporter protected both Cys-398 and Cys-414 against reaction with the thiol reagents, whereas binding at the cytoplasmic side was less effective and discriminated between Cys-398 and Cys-414. A model is presented in which part of the cytoplasmic loop containing Cys-398 and Cys-414 folds back into the translocation pore as a pore-loop structure. The loop protrudes into the pore beyond the citrate-binding site that is situated at the membrane-cytoplasm interface.[1]


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