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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in L6 muscle cells.

BACKGROUND: Glucosamine increases flux through the hexosamine pathway, causing insulin resistance and disturbances similar to diabetic glucose toxicity. AIM: This study examines the effect of glucosamine on glucose uptake by cultured L6 muscle cells as a model of insulin resistance. METHODS: Glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was measured using the non-metabolized glucose analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose after incubation with glucosamine for 4 and 24 h, with and without insulin and several other agents (metformin, peroxovanadium and d-pinitol) that improve glucose uptake in diabetic states. RESULTS: After 4 h, high concentrations of glucosamine (5 x 10(-3) and 10(-2) M) reduced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by up to 50%. After 24 h, the effect of insulin was completely abolished by 10(-2) M glucosamine and reduced over 50% by 5 x 10(-3) M glucosamine. Lower concentrations of glucosamine did not significantly alter glucose uptake. The effect of glucosamine could not be attributed to cytotoxicity assessed by the Trypan Blue test. Metformin, peroxovanadium and d-pinitol, each of which increased glucose uptake by L6 cells, did not prevent the decrease in glucose uptake with glucosamine. CONCLUSION: Glucosamine decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by L6 muscle cells, providing a potential model of insulin resistance with similarities to glucose toxicity. Insulin resistance induced by glucosamine was not reversed by three agents (metformin, peroxovanadium and d-pinitol) known to enhance or partially mimic the effects of insulin.[1]


  1. Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in L6 muscle cells. Bailey, C.J., Turner, S.L. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. (2004) [Pubmed]
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