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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transforming growth factor-beta1 induced alteration of skeletal morphogenesis in vivo.

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is expressed in the growth plate and is an important regulator of chondrocyte maturation. Loss of function results in premature chondrocyte maturation both in vitro and in vivo. While TGF-beta inhibits chondrocyte maturation in cell cultures, the effect of increased TGF-beta has not been well characterized in an in vivo development model. Addition of Affi-gel agarose beads loaded with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/microl) to developing stage 24-25 chick limb buds resulted in limb shortening and altered morphology. In situ hybridization studies showed down regulation of Indian hedgehog (ihh), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (bmp6), and collagen type X (colX) expression, markers of chondrocyte maturation, in TGF-beta1 treated limbs. TGF-beta1 also decreased chondrocyte proliferation in the developing anlage. The findings confirm a critical role for TGF-beta during skeletal development. A more complete understanding of the role of TGF-beta and its down-stream signals will lead to improved understanding and treatment of cartilage diseases.[1]


  1. Transforming growth factor-beta1 induced alteration of skeletal morphogenesis in vivo. Ferguson, C.M., Schwarz, E.M., Puzas, J.E., Zuscik, M.J., Drissi, H., O'Keefe, R.J. J. Orthop. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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