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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transgenes expressing the Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes cooperate during mammary carcinogenesis in doubly transgenic mice.

The Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes are transcriptionally activated by mouse mammary tumor virus insertion mutations in virus-induced tumors and encode secretory glycoproteins. To determine whether these two genes can cooperate during carcinogenesis, we have crossed two previously characterized lines of transgenic mice to obtain bitransgenic animals carrying both Wnt-1 and int-2 transgenes under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Mammary carcinomas appear earlier and with higher frequency in the bitransgenic animals, especially the males, than in either parental line. Nearly all bitransgenic males develop mammary neoplasms within 8 months of birth, whereas only 15% of Wnt-1 transgenic males and none of the int-2 transgenic males have tumors. In virgin bitransgenic females, tumors occur approximately 2 months earlier than in their Wnt-1 transgenic siblings; int-2 transgenic females rarely exhibit tumors. Preneoplastic glands from the bitransgenic animals of either sex demonstrate pronounced epithelial hyperplasia similar to that seen in Wnt-1 transgenic virgin females and males, and both transgenes are expressed in the hyperplastic glands and mammary tumors. RNA from the int-2 transgene is more abundant in mammary glands from bitransgenic animals than from int-2 transgenic animals; the increase is associated with high levels of RNA specific for keratin genes 14 and 18, suggesting that Wnt-1-induced epithelial hyperplasia is responsible for the observed increase in expression of the int-2 transgene.[1]


  1. Transgenes expressing the Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes cooperate during mammary carcinogenesis in doubly transgenic mice. Kwan, H., Pecenka, V., Tsukamoto, A., Parslow, T.G., Guzman, R., Lin, T.P., Muller, W.J., Lee, F.S., Leder, P., Varmus, H.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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