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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Proto-Oncogenes


Psychiatry related information on Proto-Oncogenes


High impact information on Proto-Oncogenes

  • It is now evident that IL-2R beta is linked to at least two intracellular signalling pathways that mediate nuclear proto-oncogene induction [7].
  • These findings suggest that the loss of the proto-oncogene Nras in certain cellular contexts can promote malignant tumor progression [8].
  • Localized signals known as 'organizers' and members of the Pax family of proto-oncogenes are both elements in this control [9].
  • These results identify a new mechanism of regulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 with potential for therapeutic exploitation [3].
  • Loss of the SKI proto-oncogene in individuals affected with 1p36 deletion syndrome is predicted by strain-dependent defects in Ski-/- mice [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Proto-Oncogenes


Biological context of Proto-Oncogenes


Anatomical context of Proto-Oncogenes


Associations of Proto-Oncogenes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Proto-Oncogenes

  • Although the ras genes have long been established as proto-oncogenes, the dominant role of activated ras in cell transformation has been questioned [30].
  • Mutations at the steel locus (Sl) of the mouse affect the same cellular targets as mutations at the white spotting locus (W), which is allelic with the c-kit proto-oncogene [31].
  • The trk proto-oncogene encodes a receptor for nerve growth factor [32].
  • Recent findings demonstrating that W encodes the c-kit proto-oncogene, a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor, have suggested that Sl encodes a ligand for c-kit [33].
  • One of the signaling pathways that operates to specify positional information throughout the segment is mediated by the wingless (wg) protein, which is the homolog of the proto-oncogene Wnt-1 [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Proto-Oncogenes


  1. Clinical screening as compared with DNA analysis in families with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Lips, C.J., Landsvater, R.M., Höppener, J.W., Geerdink, R.A., Blijham, G., van Veen, J.M., van Gils, A.P., de Wit, M.J., Zewald, R.A., Berends, M.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Germline and somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the MET proto-oncogene in papillary renal carcinomas. Schmidt, L., Duh, F.M., Chen, F., Kishida, T., Glenn, G., Choyke, P., Scherer, S.W., Zhuang, Z., Lubensky, I., Dean, M., Allikmets, R., Chidambaram, A., Bergerheim, U.R., Feltis, J.T., Casadevall, C., Zamarron, A., Bernues, M., Richard, S., Lips, C.J., Walther, M.M., Tsui, L.C., Geil, L., Orcutt, M.L., Stackhouse, T., Lipan, J., Slife, L., Brauch, H., Decker, J., Niehans, G., Hughson, M.D., Moch, H., Storkel, S., Lerman, M.I., Linehan, W.M., Zbar, B. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Acetylation inactivates the transcriptional repressor BCL6. Bereshchenko, O.R., Gu, W., Dalla-Favera, R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Mulligan, L.M., Kwok, J.B., Healey, C.S., Elsdon, M.J., Eng, C., Gardner, E., Love, D.R., Mole, S.E., Moore, J.K., Papi, L. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease. Edery, P., Lyonnet, S., Mulligan, L.M., Pelet, A., Dow, E., Abel, L., Holder, S., Nihoul-Fékété, C., Ponder, B.A., Munnich, A. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. GABAA receptor mRNAs are increased after electroconvulsive shock. Kang, I., Miller, L.G., Moises, J., Bazan, N.G. Psychopharmacology bulletin. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The IL-2 receptor complex: its structure, function, and target genes. Minami, Y., Kono, T., Miyazaki, T., Taniguchi, T. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Nras loss induces metastatic conversion of Rb1-deficient neuroendocrine thyroid tumor. Takahashi, C., Contreras, B., Iwanaga, T., Takegami, Y., Bakker, A., Bronson, R.T., Noda, M., Loda, M., Hunt, J.L., Ewen, M.E. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Growth and specification of the eye are controlled independently by Eyegone and Eyeless in Drosophila melanogaster. Dominguez, M., Ferres-Marco, D., Gutierrez-Aviño, F.J., Speicher, S.A., Beneyto, M. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Loss of the SKI proto-oncogene in individuals affected with 1p36 deletion syndrome is predicted by strain-dependent defects in Ski-/- mice. Colmenares, C., Heilstedt, H.A., Shaffer, L.G., Schwartz, S., Berk, M., Murray, J.C., Stavnezer, E. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanisms of growth arrest by c-myc antisense oligonucleotides in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: implications for the antiproliferative effects of antiestrogens. Carroll, J.S., Swarbrick, A., Musgrove, E.A., Sutherland, R.L. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Overexpression of Bcl-2 with herpes simplex virus vectors protects CNS neurons against neurological insults in vitro and in vivo. Lawrence, M.S., Ho, D.Y., Sun, G.H., Steinberg, G.K., Sapolsky, R.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways of proto-oncogene induction in human astrocytoma cells. Blackshear, P.J., Stumpo, D.J., Huang, J.K., Nemenoff, R.A., Spach, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Retinoic acid induces down-regulation of several growth factors and proto-oncogenes in a human embryonal cancer cell line. Miller, W.H., Moy, D., Li, A., Grippo, J.F., Dmitrovsky, E. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. GST pi gene is frequently coamplified with INT2 and HSTF1 proto-oncogenes in human breast cancers. Saint-Ruf, C., Malfoy, B., Scholl, S., Zafrani, B., Dutrillaux, B. Oncogene (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. The proto-oncogene bcl-2 can selectively rescue neurotrophic factor-dependent neurons from apoptosis. Allsopp, T.E., Wyatt, S., Paterson, H.F., Davies, A.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Drosophila myc regulates cellular growth during development. Johnston, L.A., Prober, D.A., Edgar, B.A., Eisenman, R.N., Gallant, P. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. IL-2 and EGF receptors stimulate the hematopoietic cell cycle via different signaling pathways: demonstration of a novel role for c-myc. Shibuya, H., Yoneyama, M., Ninomiya-Tsuji, J., Matsumoto, K., Taniguchi, T. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. c-fos is required for malignant progression of skin tumors. Saez, E., Rutberg, S.E., Mueller, E., Oppenheim, H., Smoluk, J., Yuspa, S.H., Spiegelman, B.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. C. elegans cell survival gene ced-9 encodes a functional homolog of the mammalian proto-oncogene bcl-2. Hengartner, M.O., Horvitz, H.R. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is a target of the PDGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Franke, T.F., Yang, S.I., Chan, T.O., Datta, K., Kazlauskas, A., Morrison, D.K., Kaplan, D.R., Tsichlis, P.N. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Altered metabolism of mast-cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) in cutaneous mastocytosis. Longley, B.J., Morganroth, G.S., Tyrrell, L., Ding, T.G., Anderson, D.M., Williams, D.E., Halaban, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. The LIM domain is a modular protein-binding interface. Schmeichel, K.L., Beckerle, M.C. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional receptor for GDNF encoded by the c-ret proto-oncogene. Trupp, M., Arenas, E., Fainzilber, M., Nilsson, A.S., Sieber, B.A., Grigoriou, M., Kilkenny, C., Salazar-Grueso, E., Pachnis, V., Arumäe, U. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. The trk proto-oncogene rescues NGF responsiveness in mutant NGF-nonresponsive PC12 cell lines. Loeb, D.M., Maragos, J., Martin-Zanca, D., Chao, M.V., Parada, L.F., Greene, L.A. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation of the neu/HER-2 stimulatory ligand: a 44 kd glycoprotein that induces differentiation of mammary tumor cells. Peles, E., Bacus, S.S., Koski, R.A., Lu, H.S., Wen, D., Ogden, S.G., Levy, R.B., Yarden, Y. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Mechanism of specificity in the Fos-Jun oncoprotein heterodimer. O'Shea, E.K., Rutkowski, R., Kim, P.S. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha isoforms generated by alternative splicing differentially activate myosin HC gene transcription. Izumo, S., Mahdavi, V. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenotypic changes induced by a mutated ras gene during the development of Dictyostelium transformants. Reymond, C.D., Gomer, R.H., Nellen, W., Theibert, A., Devreotes, P., Firtel, R.A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Wildtype Kras2 can inhibit lung carcinogenesis in mice. Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Vikis, H.G., Johnson, L., Liu, G., Li, J., Anderson, M.W., Sills, R.C., Hong, H.L., Devereux, T.R., Jacks, T., Guan, K.L., You, M. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The hematopoietic growth factor KL is encoded by the Sl locus and is the ligand of the c-kit receptor, the gene product of the W locus. Huang, E., Nocka, K., Beier, D.R., Chu, T.Y., Buck, J., Lahm, H.W., Wellner, D., Leder, P., Besmer, P. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. The trk proto-oncogene encodes a receptor for nerve growth factor. Klein, R., Jing, S.Q., Nanduri, V., O'Rourke, E., Barbacid, M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Mast cell growth factor maps near the steel locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is deleted in a number of steel alleles. Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Cho, B.C., Donovan, P.J., Jenkins, N.A., Cosman, D., Anderson, D., Lyman, S.D., Williams, D.E. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. wingless signaling acts through zeste-white 3, the Drosophila homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3, to regulate engrailed and establish cell fate. Siegfried, E., Chou, T.B., Perrimon, N. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells. Mulcahy, L.S., Smith, M.R., Stacey, D.W. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Imaging of human tumor xenografts with an indium-111-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody. Goldenberg, A., Masui, H., Divgi, C., Kamrath, H., Pentlow, K., Mendelsohn, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Angiotensin II induces delayed mitogenesis and cellular proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Correlation with the expression of specific endogenous growth factors and reversal by suramin. Weber, H., Taylor, D.S., Molloy, C.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Integration of transfected LTR sequences into the c-raf proto-oncogene: activation by promoter insertion. Mölders, H., Defesche, J., Müller, D., Bonner, T.I., Rapp, U.R., Müller, R. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Endothelin-1 induces hypertrophy with enhanced expression of muscle-specific genes in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Ito, H., Hirata, Y., Hiroe, M., Tsujino, M., Adachi, S., Takamoto, T., Nitta, M., Taniguchi, K., Marumo, F. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
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