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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Environmental and endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists induce bone marrow B cell growth arrest and apoptosis: interactions between mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2.

The common commercial use of phthalate esters has resulted in significant human exposure to these bioactive compounds. The facts that phthalate ester metabolites, like endogenous PGs, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( PPAR) agonists, and that PPARgamma agonists induce lymphocyte apoptosis suggest that phthalate esters are immunosuppressants that could act together with PGs to modulate early B cell development. In this study we examined the effects of a metabolite of one environmental phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), on developing B cells. MEHP inhibited [(3)H]thymidine incorporation by primary murine bone marrow B cells and a nontransformed murine pro/pre-B cell line (BU-11). Cotreatment with a retinoid X receptor alpha ligand, 9-cis-retinoic acid, decreased [(3)H]thymidine incorporation synergistically, thereby implicating activation of a PPARgamma-retinoid X receptor alpha complex. These results were similar to those obtained with the natural PPARgamma ligand 15d-PGJ(2). At moderate MEHP concentrations (25 or 100 microM for primary pro-B cells and a pro/pre-B cell line, respectively), inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation resulted primarily from apoptosis induction, whereas at lower concentrations, the inhibition probably reflected growth arrest without apoptosis. Cotreatment of bone marrow B cells with 15d-PGJ(2) and MEHP significantly enhanced the inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation seen with MEHP alone, potentially mimicking exposure in the bone marrow microenvironment where PG concentrations are high. Finally, MEHP- and 15d-PGJ(2)-induced death does not result from a decrease in NF-kappaB activation. These data demonstrate that environmental phthalates can cooperate with an endogenous ligand, 15d-PGJ(2), to inhibit proliferation of and induce apoptosis in developing bone marrow B cells, potentially via PPARgamma activation.[1]


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