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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neonatal microscopic polyangiitis secondary to transfer of maternal myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody resulting in neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage and renal involvement.

BACKGROUND: Microscopic polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis characterized by small vessel involvement. Studies suggest myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is involved in its pathogenesis, and the titer may reflect disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of transplacental transfer of MPO-ANCA from a mother to a 33-week gestational age neonate that resulted in neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage and renal involvement that was successfully treated with high-dose steroid therapy and exchange transfusion. METHODS: MPO-ANCA titers from the cord blood and the neonate on the 8th, 15th, and 25th days of life (DOLs) were obtained. Metabolic panels and chest x-ray examinations were performed for the neonate and mother and the following values were measured: ANCA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, antinuclear antibody, serial urinalysis, and complete blood cell count. Anti-glomerular basement membrane, quantitative immunoglobulins, anticardiolipin antibody, and rheumatoid factor were also measured for the neonate. RESULTS: The neonate had elevated MPO-ANCA titers at birth. Pulmonary hemorrhage and renal involvement were seen on DOL 2. High-dose steroid therapy decreased symptoms within 1.5 hours of initiation. Exchange transfusion performed on DOL 5 removed all of the remaining MPO-ANCA by DOL 25. The child remains asymptomatic to date. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of transplacental transfer of MPO-ANCA resulting in pulmonary-renal syndrome that was successfully treated with high-dose steroid therapy and exchange transfusion.[1]


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