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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma isoform expression and agonist effects in normal and malignant prostate cells.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is being studied intensively for its role in carcinogenesis and in mediating the effects of prostate cancer treatment and prevention drugs. Prostate cancers express abundant and higher constitutive levels of PPAR-gamma than do normal prostate cells and are growth inhibited by ligand activation of PPAR-gamma. However, little is known about the role of PPARs in tumorigenesis or in normal prostate epithelial cells (EC). We examined the expression, phosphorylation patterns, and functions of the human PPAR (hPPAR)-gamma1 and hPPAR-gamma2 isoforms in normal prostate ECs to determine if activation of the receptor is sufficient for PPAR-gamma ligand activity in prostate cells. We found that ECs did not express either PPAR-gamma1 or PPAR-gamma2 protein and were not sensitive to growth inhibition by the PPAR-gamma ligand 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)). In contrast, prostate cancer cells (PC-3), which express PPAR-gamma1 receptor isoform, are growth inhibited by PPAR-gamma ligand. Forced expression of hPPAR-gamma1 or hPPAR-gamma2 made ECs sensitive to 15d-PGJ(2) and led to reduced cellular viability. The direct repeat-1 promoter containing PPAR response elements was transactivated in ECs expressing exogenous PPAR-gamma1 or PPAR-gamma2, indicating that either isoform can be active in these cells. 15-Lipoxygenase-2, expressed at high levels in ECs, was down-regulated by transfecting PPAR-gamma expression construct (either gamma1 or gamma2 isoform) into ECs. Addition of PPAR-gamma ligand 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the presence of PPAR-gamma expression caused further down-regulation of 15-lipoxygenase-2. Our data illustrate that a PPAR-gamma ligand (15d-PGJ(2)) activates PPAR-gamma1 and selectively induces cell death in human prostate cancer cells but not in normal prostate ECs. These findings have important implications for the development of PPAR-gamma-targeting agents that prevent or treat prostate cancer and spare normal prostate cells.[1]


  1. Differential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma isoform expression and agonist effects in normal and malignant prostate cells. Subbarayan, V., Sabichi, A.L., Kim, J., Llansa, N., Logothetis, C.J., Lippman, S.M., Menter, D.G. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
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