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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Involvement of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry.

Productive entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is believed to occur by direct fusion at the plasma membrane. Endocytic uptake of HIV particles has been observed in several studies but is considered to be nonproductive, leading to virus degradation in the lysosome. We show here that endocytosis contributes significantly to productive HIV entry in HeLa cells by using trans dominant-negative mutants of dynamin and Eps15. Inducible expression of a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin in a CD4-positive HeLa cell line reduced HIV infection by 40 to 80%. This effect was independent of the infectious dose and was observed for three different isolates. Analysis of reverse transcription products by real-time PCR and of virus entry by delivery of a virion-associated Vpr-beta-lactamase fusion protein revealed a similar reduction, indicating that the block occurred at the entry stage. A strong reduction of HIV entry was also observed upon transient transfection of a different trans dominant-negative variant of dynamin, and this reduction correlated with the relative inhibition of transferrin endocytosis. Expression of a dominant-negative variant of Eps15, which is specific for clathrin-dependent endocytosis, reduced HIV entry in HeLa cells by ca 95%, confirming the role of endocytosis for productive infection. In contrast, no effect was observed for a dominant-negative variant of caveolin. We conclude that dynamin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis can lead to productive entry of HIV in HeLa cells, suggesting this pathway as an alternative route of virus entry.[1]


  1. Involvement of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. Daecke, J., Fackler, O.T., Dittmar, M.T., Kräusslich, H.G. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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