The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Bi-functional effects of ATP/P2 receptor activation on tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes.

Neuroinflammation is associated with a variety of CNS pathologies. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a major proinflammatory cytokine, as well as extracellular ATP, are increased following various CNS insults. Here we report on the relationship between ATP/P2 purinergic receptor activation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release from primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. Using ELISA, we confirmed that treatment with LPS stimulated the release of TNF-alpha in a concentration and time dependent manner. ATP treatment alone had no effect on TNF-alpha release. LPS-induced TNF-alpha release was attenuated by 1 mm ATP, a concentration known to activate P2X7 receptors. Consistent with this, 3'-O-(4-Benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, also attenuated LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. This reduction in TNF-alpha release was not due to loss of cell viability. Adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine were ineffective, suggesting that attenuation of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release by ATP was not due to ATP breakdown and subsequent activation of adenosine/P1 receptors. Interestingly, treatment of astrocyte cultures with 10 microm or 100 microm ATP potentiated TNF-alpha release induced by a submaximal concentration of LPS. UTP and 2methylthioADP (2-MeSADP), P2Y receptor agonists, also enhanced this LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Our observations demonstrate opposing effects of ATP/P2 receptor activation on TNF-alpha release, i.e. P2X receptor activation attenuates, whereas P2Y receptor activation potentiates TNF-alpha release in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby astrocytes can sense the severity of damage in the CNS via ATP release from damaged cells and can modulate the TNF-alpha mediated inflammatory response depending on the extracellular ATP concentration and corresponding type of astrocyte ATP/P2 receptor activated.[1]

References

 
WikiGenes - Universities