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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Combined treatment of ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol with dopamine receptor antagonist or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor potentiates cataleptic effect in mice.

RATIONALE: Drugs like haloperidol (Hal) that decrease dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the striatum induce catalepsy in rodents and Parkinson disease-like symptoms in humans. Nitric oxide synthase ( NOS) inhibitors interfere with motor activity, disrupting rodent exploratory behavior and inducing catalepsy. Catalepsy induced by NOS inhibitors probably involves striatal DA-mediated neurotransmission. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) have also been shown to interfere with movement modulation and the DA system. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate if the antioxidants vitamins C and E would influence the catalepsy produced by Hal and NOS inhibitors. METHODS: The effects of the following treatments on catalepsy were examined using the hanging-bar test on male Swiss mice (25-30 g): (1) vitamin C (30-1,000 mg/kg)xHal (1 mg/kg); (2) vitamin C (90-1,000 mg/kg)xN (G)-nitro-L: -arginine (LNOARG, 10 and 40 mg/kg); (3) vitamin C (300 mg/kg)xN (G)-nitro-L: -arginine methylester (LNAME, 20-80 mg/kg); (4) vitamin C (300 mg/kg) x 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 3-50 mg/kg); (5) vitamin C (90 mg/kg i.p.) x LNOARG [40 mg/kg twice a day during 4 days (subchronic treatment)]; (7) vitamin E (3-100 mg/kg) x Hal (1 mg/kg); and (6) vitamin E (3-100 mg/kg) x LNOARG (40 mg/kg). RESULTS: Vitamin C enhanced the catalepsy produced by NOS inhibitors and Hal. Treatment with vitamin C did not affect tolerance to LNOARG cataleptic effect induced by subchronic treatment. Vitamin E potentiated the catalepsy induced by LNOARG at all doses tested; in contrast, catalepsy induced by Hal was enhanced only by the dose of 100 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Results support an involvement of dopaminergic and nitrergic systems in motor behavior control and provide compelling evidence that combined administration of the antioxidants vitamins C and E with either Hal or NOS inhibitors exacerbates extrapyramidal effects. Further studies are needed to assess possible clinical implications of these findings.[1]


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