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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The penta-EF-hand protein ALG-2 interacts directly with the ESCRT-I component TSG101, and Ca2+-dependently co-localizes to aberrant endosomes with dominant-negative AAA ATPase SKD1/Vps4B.

ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2) is a Ca2+-binding protein that belongs to the PEF (penta-EF-hand) protein family. Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X)/AIP1 (ALG-2-interacting protein 1), one of its binding partners, interacts with TSG101 and CHMP4 (charged multivesicular body protein 4), which are components of ESCRT-I (endosomal sorting complex required for transport I) and ESCRT-III respectively. In the present study, we investigated the association between ALG-2 and ESCRT-I. By a GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assay using HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cell lysates, endogenous TSG101 and two other exogenously expressed ESCRT-I components [hVps28 (human vacuolar protein sorting 28) and hVps37A] were shown to associate with GST- ALG-2 in the presence of Ca2+. By the yeast two-hybrid assay, however, a positive interaction was observed with only TSG101 among the three ESCRT-I components, suggesting that ALG-2 associates with hVps28 and hVps37A indirectly through TSG101. Using various deletion mutants of TSG101, the central PRR (proline-rich region) was found to be sufficient for interaction with ALG-2 by the GST-pull-down assay. Direct binding of ALG-2 to the TSG101 PRR was demonstrated by an overlay assay using biotin-labelled ALG-2 as a probe. In immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of HeLa cells that overexpressed a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-fused ATPase-defective dominant-negative form of SKD1/Vps4B (GFP-SKD1(E235Q)), ALG-2 exhibited a punctate distribution at the perinuclear area and co-localized with GFP-SKD1(E235Q) to aberrant endosomes. This punctate distribution of ALG-2 was markedly diminished by treatment of HeLa cells with a membrane-permeant Ca2+ chelator. Moreover, a Ca2+-binding-defective mutant of ALG-2 did not co-localize with GFP-SKD1(E235Q). Our findings suggest that ALG-2 may function as a Ca2+-dependent accessory protein of the endosomal sorting machinery by interacting directly with TSG101 as well as with Alix.[1]


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