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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Collagenolytic protease expression in cranial cruciate ligament and stifle synovial fluid in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

OBJECTIVE: To determine expression of collagenolytic genes and collagen degradation in stifle tissues of dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). ANIMALS: Six dogs with CCL rupture and 11 dogs with intact CCL. PROCEDURES: Gene expression in CCL tissue and synovial fluid cells was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Collagen degradation was studied using CCL explant cultures and a synovial fluid bioassay. RESULTS: Expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) was not found in young Beagles with intact CCL; however, increased expression of MMP-3 was found in CCL tissue from older hounds with intact CCL, when compared with young Beagles. In dogs with ruptured CCL, expression of MMP-2 and -9 was increased in stifle tissues, when compared with dogs with intact CCL. Similar to MMP-9, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin S was only found in stifle tissues from dogs with ruptured CCL; in contrast, expression of cathepsin K was found in all ruptured and intact CCL. Collagen degradation was increased in ruptured CCL, when compared with intact CCL. CONCLUSION: Rupture of the CCL is associated with up-regulation of expression of MMP-2 and -9 (gelatinase A and B), TRAP, and cathepsin S, and increased degradation of collagen. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that MMP-2, -9, cathepsin S, and TRAP may be important mediators of progressive joint destruction in dogs with CCL rupture. These genes are markers for macrophages and dendritic cells. MMP and cathepsin S pathways may offer novel targets for anti-inflammatory medical therapy aimed at ameliorating joint degradation associated with inflammatory arthritis.[1]


  1. Collagenolytic protease expression in cranial cruciate ligament and stifle synovial fluid in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Muir, P., Danova, N.A., Argyle, D.J., Manley, P.A., Hao, Z. Veterinary surgery : VS : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons. (2005) [Pubmed]
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