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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human pancreatic islets treated with high glucose or ligands of the advanced glycation endproduct-specific receptor (AGER), and in islets from diabetic mice.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2, previously known as COX2) enzyme and its products, such as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases including islet dysfunction under diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated whether diabetic conditions in vitro, such as high-glucose (HG) culture or AGE, or in vivo in animal models of diabetes can induce PTGS2 expression and activity in pancreatic islets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated human pancreatic islets were treated for 24 h with HG (25 mmol/l) or with S100b (5 mg/l), a specific ligand for the AGE-specific receptor. PTGS2 and cyclooxygenase-1 (PTGS1, previously known as COX1) mRNA, protein expression and product PGE(2) were analysed by RT-PCR, Western blots and specific enzyme immunoassay respectively. Islet PTGS2 production in animal models was assessed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Treatment of human pancreatic islets with HG and S100b led to a three-five-fold induction of PTGS2 mRNA (p<0.001). PTGS2 protein and its product PGE(2) (351.4+/-13.05 fg/ml vs control 39.4+/-0.11 fg/ml) were also increased (p<0.001). Pretreatment with specific inhibitors demonstrated the involvement of protein kinase C and oxidant stress in S100b- and HG- induced PTGS2 expression. However, insulin secretion was not significantly altered by S100b. Double immunofluorescent staining showed increased PTGS2 production in pancreatic islets from diabetic mice relative to corresponding controls. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: These results show for the first time that diabetes as well as diabetic conditions such as AGE and HG in vitro can directly upregulate the expression of the inflammatory PTGS2 gene in pancreatic islets. This might contribute to the pathogenesis of islet dysfunction in diabetes.[1]


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