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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The neuropeptide FMRFamide can protect cells against apoptosis in the snail digestive gland.

FMRFamide-related peptides are widespread neurotransmitters or neurohormones regulating somatic or visceral motor activity. Some recent data indicate that these neuropeptides may be involved in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this work we investigated the possible effect of FMRFamide on cell viability in an invertebrate-type proliferating tissue. As a model, we used the midintestinal gland of the snail, Helix lucorum Linnaeus. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the direct innervation of the gland cells by FMRFamide-containing nerve fibers. Midintestinal glands of snails were injected with 50 muM FMRFamide and the control with sterile deionised water or bovine serum albumin ( BSA). Injections were administrated 4 times. Transmission electron microscopy, annexin V-labeling, thiazolyl blue (MTT) viability tests and ploidy analyses were carried out to define the viable/dead cell ratio in the tissue samples. FMRFamide increased the MTT-reduction of tissues, reduced the amount of apoptotic nuclei and annexin V-labeled cells. Deionised water or BSA injection induced cell death. Cell cyle analysis revealed that FMRFamide significantly elevated the amount of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase, but did not induce mitosis. We conclude, that the FMRFamide can be a life-signal for cells, protect them from apoptosis without altering mitosis.[1]


  1. The neuropeptide FMRFamide can protect cells against apoptosis in the snail digestive gland. Roszer, T., Kappelmayer, J., Nagy, G.G., Szentmiklósi, A.J., Basnakian, A.G., Bánfalvi, G. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
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