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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transforming growth factor beta regulates cyclooxygenase-2 in glomerular mesangial cells.

This study examines the hypothesis that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2) and induces prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1) in rat mesangial cells. COX-2 expression was determined by Northern blot analysis after treatment with either TGFbeta1 or the selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. mPGES-1 expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of TGFbeta1 on COX-2 gene transcription was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay, and mRNA stability was also determined. To determine whether TGFbeta1 activates elements of the COX-2 promoter, we performed gel shift analyses to examine activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) production was assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Finally, the pathophysiological relevance of COX-2 inhibition on the downstream effects of TGFbeta was assessed by examining collagen type I mRNA and net collagen production. COX-2 mRNA and mPGES-1 were induced after treatment with TGFbeta1 for 4 h, and this rise was accompanied by a three-fold increase in PGE(2) production that could be antagonized by selective inhibition of COX-2 with NS398. TGFbeta1 increased transcription by approximately 50% and activated both AP-1 and NF-kappaB. These effects were antagonized by co-treatment with NS398. Treatment with TGFbeta1 also doubled the half-life of COX-2 mRNA. Neither collagen type I mRNA nor net collagen production were altered by co-treatment with NS398. In conclusion, these results indicate that TGFbeta stimulates COX-2 and mPGES-1, with additional effects on transcription and stability of COX-2 mRNA.[1]


  1. Transforming growth factor beta regulates cyclooxygenase-2 in glomerular mesangial cells. Harding, P., Balasubramanian, L., Swegan, J., Stevens, A., Glass, W.F. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
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