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Chemical Compound Review

thromboxane B2     7-[(2S,3S,4S,6S)-4,6- dihydroxy-2-[(3S)-3...

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Disease relevance of thromboxane B2

  • In 8 patients dying with septic shock the concentration of plasma TXB2 (912 +/- 250 pg/ml) was ten times higher than that in 4 survivors of septic shock (92 +/- 25 pg/ml) and 6 controls (91 +/- 18 pg/ml) [1].
  • These data indicate that leukocyte filters inhibit the myocardial ischemia and release of TxB2 induced by C5a via mechanisms not related to PMN depletion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[2]
  • TxB2 was isolated from protein-free culture medium of cell lines Calu-3, Calu-6, A549, and A549/Asc-1, derived from human lung adenocarcinomas [3].
  • Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) release during IgE anaphylaxis in the rabbit [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-1 may be a necessary mediator of increased circulating PGI, TxB2, LTC4D4E4, TNF, and IL-6 levels in patients with severe sepsis [5].

High impact information on thromboxane B2


Chemical compound and disease context of thromboxane B2


Biological context of thromboxane B2


Anatomical context of thromboxane B2

  • The addition of 10(-5) M exogenous arachidonic acid to the cultured cells resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in TxB2 and bisenoic prostanoid production with no significant alterations in the proportion of TxB2 production [3].
  • In contrast, the neutrophils from women demonstrated relatively higher O-2 production with a cyclic pattern of both TxB2 and O-2 which correlated with their menstrual cycle [19].
  • In this study, we determined whether production levels of the eicosanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), both potent modifiers of lymphocyte function, were altered in lymphoid organs concomitant with a breakdown of tolerance in these mice [20].
  • The release of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) from freshly isolated monocytes stimulated by opsonized zymosan (OPZ) was inhibited by 39.3 +/- 5.5% in the presence of isoprenaline (10(-7) M) [21].
  • Upon calcium ionophore stimulation guinea pig eosinophils released thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) while monkey and human cells produced LTC4, LTB4, and 5-HETE [22].

Associations of thromboxane B2 with other chemical compounds

  • Mean eicosanoid lavage fluid concentrations in control patients were 14.1 pg/ml for LTB4, 5.6 pg/ml for PGE2, and 397 pg/ml for TXB2 [23].
  • Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane-B2 production by melatonin: evidence for a diurnal variation [24].
  • Furthermore, in 3 independent studies with different numbers of human male volunteers, a Harpagophytum extract was administered orally and tested in whole blood samples for Cys-LT and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) biosynthesis and for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of harpagoside [25].
  • Hypercholesterolemic pigs fed the TRF supplement showed a 44% decrease in total serum cholesterol, a 60% decrease in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and significant decreases in levels of apolipoprotein B (26%), thromboxane-B2 (41%), and platelet factor 4 (PF4; 29%) [26].
  • Post-reperfusion TXB2 levels tended to be lower in the nonischemic control group and in the indomethacin-flush groups [27].

Gene context of thromboxane B2

  • Serum was assayed for ex-vivo concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) to determine cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory activity [28].
  • ET-3 (2.5 nM) is also a potent releaser of PGI2 and TxB2 from the guinea-pig lungs (maximal release: PGI2: 2.4 +/- 1.0 ng ml-1; TxB2: 3.8 +/- 0.6 ng ml-1) [29].
  • Collectively, the proinflammatory cytokines could enhance COX-1 but not COX-2 expression in GMC leading to increased PGE2 and TXB2 production [30].
  • Platelet activation was measured by radioimmunoassay of plasma platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta-thromboglobulin (BTG), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in blood samples withdrawn through catheters, and fibrin formation was assessed by determination of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) levels [31].
  • After cold stimulation, a significant increase of NEFA, BTG, and plasma TXB2 was observed, which was still discernible 15 min after the application of cold [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of thromboxane B2

  • As renal function deteriorated, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production by ex vivo perfused renal allografts increased progressively from 2 to 6 d after transplantation [9].
  • In the immediate postoperative period, however, there was significant release of PF4 and beta-TG and generation of TXB2 [10].
  • The response to C5a during coronary perfusion with arterial blood depleted of PMNs with Sepacell or Pall filters (less than 0.1 x 10(3) cells/microliters) was greatly blunted, with flow and contractile function falling by less than 14 and 8%, respectively, from baseline, and release of TxB2 was greatly attenuated [2].
  • Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) production was assayed by enzyme immunoassay [32].
  • Addition of salbutamol, inactive alone, potentiated the generation of superoxide anion and of nitric oxide generation, as well as the production of IL-6 and TxB2 triggered by CD23 ligation [33].


  1. Plasma thromboxane concentrations are raised in patients dying with septic shock. Reines, H.D., Halushka, P.V., Cook, J.A., Wise, W.C., Rambo, W. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Intracoronary C5a induces myocardial ischemia by mechanisms independent of the neutrophil: leukocyte filters desensitize the myocardium to C5a. Engler, R.L., Roth, D.M., del Balzo, U., Ito, B.R. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for thromboxane biosynthesis in established cell lines derived from human lung adenocarcinomas. Hubbard, W.C., Alley, M.C., McLemore, T.L., Boyd, M.R. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) release during IgE anaphylaxis in the rabbit. McManus, L.M., Shaw, J.O., Pinckard, R.N. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Unopposed interleukin-1 is necessary for increased plasma cytokine and eicosanoid levels to develop in severe sepsis. Slotman, G.J., Quinn, J.V., Wry, P.C., Brathwaite, C.E., Friedman, B.M. Ann. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Prostaglandins modulate macrophage Ia expression. Snyder, D.S., Beller, D.I., Unanue, E.R. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Estimated rate of thromboxane secretion into the circulation of normal humans. Patrono, C., Ciabattoni, G., Pugliese, F., Pierucci, A., Blair, I.A., FitzGerald, G.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Biochemical selectivity of oral versus intravenous aspirin in rats. Inhibition by oral aspirin of cyclooxygenase activity in platelets and presystemic but not systemic vessels. Cerletti, C., Gambino, M.C., Garattini, S., de Gaetano, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional role of thromboxane production by acutely rejecting renal allografts in rats. Coffman, T.M., Yarger, W.E., Klotman, P.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems leads to hemorrhagic complications during left ventricular assist implantation. Livingston, E.R., Fisher, C.A., Bibidakis, E.J., Pathak, A.S., Todd, B.A., Furukawa, S., McClurken, J.B., Addonizio, V.P., Jeevanandam, V. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin-induced synthesis of eicosanoids by bovine neutrophils in vitro. Clinkenbeard, K.D., Clarke, C.R., Hague, C.M., Clinkenbeard, P., Srikumaran, S., Morton, R.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. The involvement of platelets and the coronary vasculature in collagen-induced sudden death in rabbits. Mallarkey, G., Smith, G.M. Thromb. Haemost. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased production of interleukin-1-beta, prostaglandin-E2 and thromboxane-B2, and elevated levels of interleukin-6 and -10 are associated with increased survival during endotoxic shock in mice consuming diets enriched with sesame seed oil supplemented with Quil-A saponin. Chavali, S.R., Zhong, W.W., Utsunomiya, T., Forse, R.A. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of thromboxane and leukotriene B4 in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after oesophagectomy. Schilling, M.K., Gassmann, N., Sigurdsson, G.H., Regli, B., Stoupis, C., Furrer, M., Signer, C., Redaelli, C., Büchler, M.W. British journal of anaesthesia. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Monitoring the entry of new platelets into the circulation after ingestion of aspirin. Di Minno, G., Silver, M.J., Murphy, S. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of three species of fish consumed as part of a Western diet: effects on platelet fatty acids and function, hemostasis, and production of thromboxane. Wander, R.C., Patton, B.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Platelet activation after adrenergic stimulation in hypertensive patients: effects of acebutolol. Davi', G., Novo, S., Pinto, A., Custro, N., Averna, M., Mattina, A., Strano, A. Eur. Heart J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of platelet number and haematocrit on whole blood thromboxane synthesis. Carter, A.J., Hanley, S.P. Thromb. Haemost. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Gender-related variations and interaction of human neutrophil cyclooxygenase and oxidative burst metabolites. Mallery, S.R., Zeligs, B.J., Ramwell, P.W., Bellanti, J.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Lymphoid organ production of immunomodulatory eicosanoids in mice resistant to neonatal tolerance induction. Nassiri, M., Viciana, A., Padmanabhan, J., Streilein, J.W., Ruiz, P. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Loss of response to beta-adrenoceptor agonists during the maturation of human monocytes to macrophages in vitro. Baker, A.J., Fuller, R.W. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Biochemical and functional differences between eosinophils from animal species and man. Sun, F.F., Crittenden, N.J., Czuk, C.I., Taylor, B.M., Stout, B.K., Johnson, H.G. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Soluble Fc gamma receptor III (CD 16) and eicosanoid concentrations in gut lavage fluid from patients with inflammatory bowel disease: reflection of mucosal inflammation. Hommes, D.W., Meenan, J., de Haas, M., ten Kate, F.J., von dem Borne, A.E., Tytgat, G.N., van Deventer, S.J. Gut (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane-B2 production by melatonin: evidence for a diurnal variation. Del Zar, M.M., Martinuzzo, M., Falcón, C., Cardinali, D.P., Carreras, L.O., Vacas, M.I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Investigations on the pharmacokinetic properties of Harpagophytum extracts and their effects on eicosanoid biosynthesis in vitro and ex vivo. Loew, D., Möllerfeld, J., Schrödter, A., Puttkammer, S., Kaszkin, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Dietary tocotrienols reduce concentrations of plasma cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, thromboxane B2, and platelet factor 4 in pigs with inherited hyperlipidemias. Qureshi, A.A., Qureshi, N., Hasler-Rapacz, J.O., Weber, F.E., Chaudhary, V., Crenshaw, T.D., Gapor, A., Ong, A.S., Chong, Y.H., Peterson, D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of Eurocollins and University of Wisconsin solution in single flush preservation of the ischemic reperfused lung: an in vivo rabbit model. Balkhy, H.H., Peterson, M.B., Connolly, R.J., Zhang, X., Diehl, J.T. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Gastroduodenal tolerability of lumiracoxib vs placebo and naproxen: a pilot endoscopic study in healthy male subjects. Rordorf, C., Kellett, N., Mair, S., Ford, M., Milosavljev, S., Branson, J., Scott, G. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Different pharmacological profiles of big-endothelin-3 and big-endothelin-1 in vivo and in vitro. D'Orléans-Juste, P., Télémaque, S., Claing, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Proinflammatory cytokines enhance COX-1 gene expression in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells. Tsai, C.Y., Yu, C.L., Wu, T.H., Hsieh, S.C., Tsai, Y.Y. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of heparin bonding on catheter-induced fibrin formation and platelet activation. Nichols, A.B., Owen, J., Grossman, B.A., Marcella, J.J., Fleisher, L.N., Lee, M.M. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Transforming growth factor beta regulates cyclooxygenase-2 in glomerular mesangial cells. Harding, P., Balasubramanian, L., Swegan, J., Stevens, A., Glass, W.F. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists regulate the IL-4-induced phenotypical changes and IgE-dependent functions in normal human monocytes. Paul-Eugène, N., Kolb, J.P., Damais, C., Abadie, A., Mencia-Huerta, J.M., Braquet, P., Bousquet, J., Dugas, B. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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