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Gene Review

PTGES  -  prostaglandin E synthase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MGST-IV, MGST1-L1, MGST1L1, MPGES, MPGES-1, ...
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Disease relevance of PTGES


High impact information on PTGES


Chemical compound and disease context of PTGES


Biological context of PTGES


Anatomical context of PTGES


Associations of PTGES with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PTGES


Other interactions of PTGES

  • Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), which isomerizes COX-derived PGH2 specifically to PGE2, occurs in multiple forms with distinct enzymatic properties, expressions, localizations and functions [26].
  • Recently, a microsomal protein with 38% sequence identity to microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 was shown to constitute an inducible, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) [17].
  • Recent studies have identified three PGE synthase (PGES) isozymes: cytosolic PGES (cPGES) and microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1 and -2, but little is known regarding the expression and roles of these enzymes in gastric fibroblasts [27].
  • Flow cytometry on primary CVX and NCK and immunohistochemical staining of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from which primary CVX cultures were derived as well as from a separate set of invasive cervical cancers confirmed differential expression of the CDKN2A/p16 and PTGES markers on CVX versus NCK [28].
  • Finally, a comparison of the mGST-I and PIG12 sequences with those of FLAP, LTC4 synthase, mGST-II, and mGST-III suggests that these proteins are the related products of a dispersed microsomal GST gene superfamily [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTGES


  1. Membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines in chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis. Kojima, F., Naraba, H., Miyamoto, S., Beppu, M., Aoki, H., Kawai, S. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1, mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGES expression in human gastritis and gastric ulcer tissue. Gudis, K., Tatsuguchi, A., Wada, K., Futagami, S., Nagata, K., Hiratsuka, T., Shinji, Y., Miyake, K., Tsukui, T., Fukuda, Y., Sakamoto, C. Lab. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of orthologous gene expression between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma and a carcinogen-induced murine model. Stearman, R.S., Dwyer-Nield, L., Zerbe, L., Blaine, S.A., Chan, Z., Bunn, P.A., Johnson, G.L., Hirsch, F.R., Merrick, D.T., Franklin, W.A., Baron, A.E., Keith, R.L., Nemenoff, R.A., Malkinson, A.M., Geraci, M.W. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. Tanioka, T., Nakatani, Y., Semmyo, N., Murakami, M., Kudo, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Inducible microsomal prostaglandin E synthase is overexpressed in colorectal adenomas and cancer. Yoshimatsu, K., Golijanin, D., Paty, P.B., Soslow, R.A., Jakobsson, P.J., DeLellis, R.A., Subbaramaiah, K., Dannenberg, A.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is involved in the prostaglandin metabolism of osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in articular chondrocytes. Grimmer, C., Pfander, D., Swoboda, B., Aigner, T., Mueller, L., Hennig, F.F., Gelse, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 augments prostacyclin and retards atherogenesis. Wang, M., Zukas, A.M., Hui, Y., Ricciotti, E., Pur??, E., Fitzgerald, G.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of human prostaglandin E synthase: a microsomal, glutathione-dependent, inducible enzyme, constituting a potential novel drug target. Jakobsson, P.J., Thorén, S., Morgenstern, R., Samuelsson, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Cooperation of cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 in intestinal polyposis. Takeda, H., Sonoshita, M., Oshima, H., Sugihara, K., Chulada, P.C., Langenbach, R., Oshima, M., Taketo, M.M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Up-regulation of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in osteoarthritic human cartilage: critical roles of the ERK-1/2 and p38 signaling pathways. Masuko-Hongo, K., Berenbaum, F., Humbert, L., Salvat, C., Goldring, M.B., Thirion, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Westman, M., Korotkova, M., af Klint, E., Stark, A., Audoly, L.P., Klareskog, L., Ulfgren, A.K., Jakobsson, P.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Renal cortical regulation of COX-1 and functionally related products in early renovascular hypertension (rat). Theilig, F., Debiec, H., Nafz, B., Ronco, P., N??sing, R., Seyberth, H.W., Pavenst??dt, H., Bouby, N., Bachmann, S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Prostaglandin E2 is an enhancer of interleukin-1beta-induced expression of membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Kojima, F., Naraba, H., Sasaki, Y., Beppu, M., Aoki, H., Kawai, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Interleukin 1beta induces functional prostaglandin E synthase in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Uracz, W., Uracz, D., Olszanecki, R., Gryglewski, R.J. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular prostaglandin E2 production by membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-2 via both cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. Murakami, M., Nakashima, K., Kamei, D., Masuda, S., Ishikawa, Y., Ishii, T., Ohmiya, Y., Watanabe, K., Kudo, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential localization of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human placental cell types. Meadows, J.W., Pitzer, B., Brockman, D.E., Myatt, L. Placenta (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Coordinate up- and down-regulation of glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in A549 cells. Inhibition by NS-398 and leukotriene C4. Thorén, S., Jakobsson, P.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human myometrium with labour. Astle, S., Newton, R., Thornton, S., Vatish, M., Slater, D.M. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Overexpression of functionally coupled cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques as a basis of prostaglandin E(2)-dependent plaque instability. Cipollone, F., Prontera, C., Pini, B., Marini, M., Fazia, M., De Cesare, D., Iezzi, A., Ucchino, S., Boccoli, G., Saba, V., Chiarelli, F., Cuccurullo, F., Mezzetti, A. Circulation (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression and localization of prostaglandin E synthase isoforms in human fetal membranes in term and preterm labor. Meadows, J.W., Eis, A.L., Brockman, D.E., Myatt, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Synergistic up-regulation of prostaglandin E synthase expression in breast cancer cells by 17beta-estradiol and proinflammatory cytokines. Frasor, J., Weaver, A.E., Pradhan, M., Mehta, K. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutation of a critical arginine in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 shifts the isomerase activity to a reductase activity that converts prostaglandin H2 into prostaglandin F2alpha. Hammarberg, T., Hamberg, M., Wetterholm, A., Hansson, H., Samuelsson, B., Haeggström, J.Z. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  23. Transforming growth factor beta regulates cyclooxygenase-2 in glomerular mesangial cells. Harding, P., Balasubramanian, L., Swegan, J., Stevens, A., Glass, W.F. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of enzymes of cyclooxygenase pathway and secretion of prostaglandin E(2) and F(2)alpha by porcine myometrium during luteolysis and early pregnancy. Franczak, A., Kotwica, G., Kurowicka, B., Oponowicz, A., Wocławek-Potocka, I., Petroff, B.K. Theriogenology (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Human vascular smooth muscle cells but not endothelial cells express prostaglandin E synthase. Soler, M., Camacho, M., Escudero, J.R., Iñiguez, M.A., Vila, L. Circ. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Prostaglandin e synthase, a terminal enzyme for prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. Kudo, I., Murakami, M. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Induced microsomal PGE synthase-1 is involved in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent PGE2 production in gastric fibroblasts. Shinji, Y., Tsukui, T., Tatsuguchi, A., Shinoki, K., Kusunoki, M., Suzuki, K., Hiratsuka, T., Wada, K., Futagami, S., Miyake, K., Gudis, K., Sakamoto, C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Gene expression profiles of primary HPV16- and HPV18-infected early stage cervical cancers and normal cervical epithelium: identification of novel candidate molecular markers for cervical cancer diagnosis and therapy. Santin, A.D., Zhan, F., Bignotti, E., Siegel, E.R., Cané, S., Bellone, S., Palmieri, M., Anfossi, S., Thomas, M., Burnett, A., Kay, H.H., Roman, J.J., O'Brien, T.J., Tian, E., Cannon, M.J., Shaughnessy, J., Pecorelli, S. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Microsomal GST-I: genomic organization, expression, and alternative splicing of the human gene. Lee, S.H., DeJong, J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of prostaglandin I(2) synthase, but not prostaglandin E synthase, changes in myometrium of women at term pregnancy. Giannoulias, D., Alfaidy, N., Holloway, A.C., Gibb, W., Sun, M., Lye, S.J., Challis, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of prostaglandin D2 and E2 terminal synthases in chronic rhinosinusitis. Okano, M., Fujiwara, T., Yamamoto, M., Sugata, Y., Matsumoto, R., Fukushima, K., Yoshino, T., Shimizu, K., Eguchi, N., Kiniwa, M., Urade, Y., Nishizaki, K. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
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