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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Several glutathione S-transferase isozymes that protect against oxidative injury are expressed in human liver mitochondria.

The mitochondrial environment is rich in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may ultimately peroxidize membrane proteins and generate unsaturated aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE). We had previously demonstrated the presence of hGSTA4-4, an efficient catalyst of 4HNE detoxification, in human liver mitochondria to the exclusion of the cytosol. In the present study, GSH-affinity chromatography was used in conjunction with biochemical and proteomic analysis to determine the presence of additional cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in human hepatic mitochondria. HPLC-subunit analysis of GSH affinity-purified liver mitochondrial proteins indicated the presence of several potential mitochondrial GST isoforms. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of eluted mitochondrial GST subunits yielded molecular masses similar to those of hGSTP1, hGSTA1 and hGSTA2. Octagonal matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and proteomics analysis using MS-FIT confirmed the presence of these three GST subunits in mitochondria, and HPLC analysis indicated that the relative contents of the mitochondrial GST subunits were hGSTA1>hGSTA2>hGSTP1. The mitochondrial localization of the alpha and pi class GST subunits was consistent with immunoblotting analysis of purified mitochondrial GST. Enzymatic studies using GSH-purified mitochondrial GST fractions demonstrated the presence of significant GST activity using the nonspecific GST substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), as well as 4HNE, delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione (ADI), and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH). Interestingly, the specific mitochondrial GST activities toward 4HNE, a highly toxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde produced during the breakdown of membrane lipids, exceeded that observed in liver cytosol. These observations are suggestive of a role of GST in protecting against mitochondrial injury during the secondary phase of oxidative stress, or modulation of 4HNE-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. However, other properties of mitochondrial GST, such as conjugation of environmental chemicals and binding of lipophilic non-substrate xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, remain to be investigated.[1]


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