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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mismatched double-stranded RNA, Ampligen (poly(I): poly(C12U), demonstrates antiviral and immunostimulatory activities in HIV disease.

Mismatched double-stranded RNA (Ampligen) has broad spectrum antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. These activities generate stabilization or improvement in three important surrogate markers of HIV disease progression. Patients with HIV disease treated with Ampligen do not become positive for p24 antigen, in contrast to patients treated with AZT or placebo. Viral burden can also be decreased in patients receiving Ampligen/AZT therapy. In vitro studies indicate that both AZT sensitive and AZT resistant viruses can be inhibited by Ampligen alone and are synergistically inhibited by Ampligen in combination with AZT. The immunomodulatory effects of Ampligen are manifested as a stabilization of CD4 counts. When Ampligen is combined with AZT, an increase in CD4 count is seen. Furthermore, a return or increase in delayed type hypersensitivity to mumps, Candida, and trichophyton was seen in approximately 70% of patients treated with Ampligen. The activity of Ampligen in HIV disease is due to its multifunctional activity as an antiviral and immune stimulating agent. The antiviral effect directly inhibits HIV-infection and other viruses which have been implicated in HIV disease acceleration and progression. The immunomodulatory activity can stabilize, increase, or restore immune function. This enhanced immune function can also lead to the further inhibition of additional infections associated with disease progression. Thus, Ampligen has multiple mechanisms of action against HIV disease.[1]


  1. Mismatched double-stranded RNA, Ampligen (poly(I): poly(C12U), demonstrates antiviral and immunostimulatory activities in HIV disease. Carter, W.A., Ventura, D., Shapiro, D.E., Strayer, D.R., Gillespie, D.H., Hubbell, H.R. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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