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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Quantification of N-(Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl Adducts in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Dosed with N-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl and Their Relationship to Mutation, Toxicity, and Gene Expression Profiling.

Gene expression profiles that are anchored to phenotypic endpoints may lead to the identification of signatures that predict mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. The study presented here describes the analysis of DNA adducts in the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line after exposure to N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, a mutagenic metabolite of 4-aminobiphenyl. A validated nano-LC microelectrospray mass spectrometry assay is reported for the detection and quantification of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), the principal DNA adduct of 4-aminobiphenyl. Limits of quantification, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1, are determined to correspond to approximately 27 fg of dG-C8-ABP injected on-column. The assay has been used to measure the steady-state levels of the adduct in the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line as a function of dose (0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 muM) and time (2, 6, and 27 h) after exposure to N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. The levels of dG-C8-ABP adducts in the cells, ranging from 18 to 500 adducts in 10(9) nucleotides, were then correlated to cell toxicity, induced mutation at the TK (thymidine kinase) and HPRT loci, and gene expression profiling through microarray analysis. Cell cultures were evaluated for toxicity by growth curve extrapolation, mutation assays were performed on the HPRT and TK loci, and gene expression profiles were generated by analyses using microarray technology. In the mutation assay analysis, as the toxicant concentration increased, there was an increase in mutation fraction, indicating a direct correlation to metabolite dosing level and mutations occurring at these two loci. Statistical analysis of the gene expression data determined that a total of 2250 genes exhibited statistically significant changes in expression after treatment with N-OH-AABP (P < 0.05). Among the genes identified, 2245 were up-regulated, whereas 5 genes that had functions in cell survival and cell growth and, hence, could be indicators of toxicity, were down-regulated relative to controls. The results demonstrate the value of anchoring gene expression patterns to phenotypic markers, such as DNA adduct levels, toxicity, and mutagenicity.[1]


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