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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine pituitary glycoprotein hormone {alpha} subunit gene expression.

Recently, we have reported that a Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor, Prop-1, is a novel transcription factor for the porcine follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHbeta) gene. This study subsequently aimed to examine the role of Prop-1 in the gene expression of two other porcine gonadotropin subunits, pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit (alphaGSU), and luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHbeta). A series of deletion mutants of the porcine alphaGSU (up to -1059 bp) and LHbeta (up to -1277 bp) promoters were constructed in the reporter vector, fused with the secreted alkaline phosphatase gene (pSEAP2-Basic). Transient transfection studies using GH3 cells were carried out to estimate the activation of the porcine alphaGSU and LHbeta promoters by Prop-1, which was found to activate the alphaGSU promoter of -1059/+12 bp up to 11.7-fold but not the LHbeta promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting analysis revealed that Prop-1 binds to six positions, -1038/-1026, -942/-928, -495/-479, -338/-326, -153/-146, and -131/-124 bp, that comprise the A/T cluster. Oligonucleotides of six Prop-1 binding sites were directly connected to the minimum promoter of alphaGSU, fused in the pSEAP2-Basic vector, followed by transfecting GH3 cells to determine the cis-acting activity. Finally, we concluded that at least five Prop-1 binding sites are the cis-acting elements for alphaGSU gene expression. The present results revealed a notable feature of the proximal region, where three Prop-1-binding sites are close to and/or overlap the pituitary glycoprotein hormone basal element, GATA-binding element, and junctional regulatory element. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the role of Prop-1 in the regulation of alphaGSU gene expression. These results, taken together with our previous finding that Prop-1 is a transcription factor for FSHbeta gene, confirm that Prop-1 modulates the synthesis of FSH at the transcriptional level. On the other hand, the defects of Prop-1 are known to cause dwarfism and combined pituitary hormone deficiency accompanying hypogonadism. Accordingly, the present observations provide a novel view to understand the hypogonadism caused by Prop-1 defects at the molecular level through the regulatory mechanism of alphaGSU and FSHbeta gene expressions.[1]


  1. Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine pituitary glycoprotein hormone {alpha} subunit gene expression. Sato, T., Kitahara, K., Susa, T., Kato, T., Kato, Y. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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