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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Germ-Line Genetic Variation in the Key Androgen-Regulating Genes Androgen Receptor, Cytochrome P450, and Steroid-5-{alpha}-Reductase Type 2 Is Important for Prostate Cancer Development.

Prostate cancer risk may be influenced by single genetic variants in the hormone- regulating genes androgen receptor (AR), cytochrome P450 ( CYP17), and steroid-5-alpha-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2). In this study, we comprehensively investigated polymorphisms in these three loci and their joint effect in a large population-based study. We selected 23 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that could uniquely describe >95% of the haplotypes (6 in AR, 6 in CYP17, and 11 in SRD5A2). These htSNPs were then genotyped in the Cancer Prostate in Sweden population (2,826 case subjects and 1,705 controls). We observed significant association for several SNPs in the AR gene (P = 0.004-0.02) and CYP17 (P = 0.009-0.05) and one SNP in SRD5A2 (P = 0.02). Carriers of the most common AR haplotype had a significant excess risk to develop prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-1.5; P = 0.002], yielding an estimated population attributable risk of 16% (95% CI, 0.06-0.25). Combining risk alleles from these genes yielded a 12% risk increase for each additional high-risk allele carried (95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P for trend = 9.2 x 10(-5)), with an overall OR of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.0-3.4) for carriers of all five included risk alleles, an OR of 2.13 (P for trend = 8 x 10(-4)) for advanced disease, and an OR of 4.35 (P for trend = 7 x 10(-5)) for disease onset before age 65 years. Genetic variation in key genes in the androgen pathway is important for development of prostate cancer and may account for a considerable proportion of all prostate cancers. Carriers of five high-risk alleles in the AR, CYP17, and SRD5A2 genes are at approximately 2-fold excess risk to develop prostate cancer. (Cancer Res 2006; 66(22): 11077-83).[1]


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