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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide.

Dexloxiglumide is a potent and selective cholecystokinin type 1 (CCK(1)) receptor antagonist currently under development in a variety of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, constipation and gastric emptying disorders. In female patients with constipation-predominant IBS, clinical efficacy has been demonstrated following administration of dexloxiglumide 200mg three times daily. Dexloxiglumide is rapidly and extensively absorbed after single oral administration in humans with an absolute bioavailability of 48%. The incomplete bioavailability is due to both incomplete absorption and hepatic first-pass effect. Following multiple-dose administration of 200mg three times daily, the accumulation is predictable, indicating time-independent pharmacokinetics. In addition, dexloxiglumide pharmacokinetics are dose-independent after both single and repeated oral three-times-daily doses in the dose range 100-400mg. Dexloxi-glumide absorption window extends from the jejunum to the colon and the drug is a substrate and a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1. Plasma protein binding of dexloxiglumide is 94-98% and the drug has a moderate to low volume of distribution in humans. Systemic clearance of dexloxi-glumide is moderate and cytochrome P450 ( CYP) 3A4/5 and CYP2C9 have been implicated in the metabolism of dexloxiglumide to produce O-demethyl dexloxi-glumide. This metabolite is further oxidised to dexloxiglumide carboxylic acid. These two major metabolites (accounting for up to 50% of dexloxiglumide elimination) have been identified. However, in human plasma the unchanged drug represents the major (up to 91%) component of the metabolic profile. The parent drug is believed to be the major contributor to the efficacy of the compound, since its major metabolites are pharmacologically inactive. In addition, the drug is a single isomer chiral drug (eutomer) that does not undergo chiral inversion into its pharmacologically inactive enantiomer (distomer). After oral administration of (14)C-dexloxiglumide, radioactivity is mainly excreted in bile and in faeces (74% of dose) with much lower excretion in urine (20% of dose). Renal excretion of unchanged dexloxiglumide is low (7% of dose in urine and faeces, 1% of dose in urine) and is dose-independent in the dose range 100-400mg. As the kidney is a minor contributor to the elimination of dexloxiglumide and/or its metabolites in humans, the pharmacokinetics of the drug should not be affected in patients with renal insufficiency. The pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide are also not affected by age, sex and administration with a high-fat breakfast. Mild and moderate liver impairment do not affect the pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide but severe liver impairment causes increases in systemic exposure to dexloxiglumide and O-demethyl dexloxiglumide. Thus, the drug should be prescribed with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment even though no dose adjustment is warranted. The results of different drug interaction studies have indicated that no clinically relevant metabolic and concomitant drug-drug interactions are expected during the clinical use of dexloxiglumide.[1]


  1. Pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide. Persiani, S., D'Amato, M., Jakate, A., Roy, P., Wangsa, J., Kapil, R., Rovati, L.C. Clinical pharmacokinetics (2006) [Pubmed]
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