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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in hepatoma tissue culture cells by pure cholesterol and several cholesterol derivatives. Evidence supporting two distinct mechanisms.20l.

Pure cholesterol associated in complexes with lipoproteins (whole serum and human low density lipoproteins) or esterified with succinic acid (cholesteryl succinate) and bound to albumin effectively suppresses 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells grown in lipoprotein-poor serum medium during short 4-hour) incubation periods. Simultaneous measurments of the kinetics of uptake of radioactive unesterified cholesterol of whole serum and cholesteryl succinate, their conversion to lipid products, and the decay in enzyme activity, suggest that the cholesterol-induced suppression is mediated by the sterol itself rather than by inhibitory lipid products derived from its metabolism. Several cholesterol derivatives such as cholestenone, 7-ketocholesterol, and 7alpha-and 25-hydroxycholesterol also suppress reductase activiy in HTC cells and are significantly more inhibitory than the pure cholesterol preparations. The decrease in enzyme activity produced by cholesterol and its derivatives is concentration-dependent and specific. [1-14C]Oleate incorporation experiments indicate that cholesterol ester formation in HTC cells is not increased at inhibitory concentrations of the steroids. These data suggest that sterol ester formation is not an obligatory process in the feedback control of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The half-life of the reductase (3 to 4 hours) is not significantly changed by cycloheximide, plus or minus whole serum, and cholesteryl succinate. In contrast, the half-life is strongly reduced when HTC cells are incubated with cycloheximide plus maximal concentrations of 25-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, or cholestenone, resulting in t1/2 values of 24, 36, and 60 min, respectively. Increasing concentrations of whole serum and cholesteryl succinate have no significant effect on the apparent rate constant of inactivation of the enzyme, whereas its apparent rate of synthesis is decreased 3- and 10-fold, respectively. These results are reversed with oxygenated steroid inhibitors. The rate of synthesis of reductase is essentially unchanged as the concentrations of 25-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, and cholestenone are increased in the culture medium, whereas the apparent rate constant for degradation is increased 9-, 7-, and 3-fold, respectively. HMG-CoA reductase activity in HTC cells thus appears to be modulated by two different mechanisms in which steroid structure is important. Whole serum and cholesteryl succinate specifically decrease the rate of enzyme synthesis, while 25-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, and cholestenone increase the rate of inactivation of the reductase.[1]


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