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Gene Review

HMGCR  -  3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, HMG-CoA reductase
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Disease relevance of HMGCR


Psychiatry related information on HMGCR


High impact information on HMGCR


Chemical compound and disease context of HMGCR


Biological context of HMGCR


Anatomical context of HMGCR


Associations of HMGCR with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of HMGCR


Enzymatic interactions of HMGCR


Regulatory relationships of HMGCR


Other interactions of HMGCR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HMGCR


  1. Reversal of cyclosporine-inhibited low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in HepG2 cells by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. al Rayyes, O., Wallmark, A., Florén, C.H. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of compactin, mevalonate and low-density lipoprotein on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity and low-density-lipoprotein-receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Cohen, L.H., Griffioen, M., Havekes, L., Schouten, D., van Hinsbergh, V., Kempen, H.J. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Importance of mevalonate-derived products in the control of HMG-CoA reductase activity and growth of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Bennis, F., Favre, G., Le Gaillard, F., Soula, G. Int. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA levels are coordinately reduced in human renal cell carcinoma. Rudling, M., Collins, V.P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. 8302A/C and (TTA)n polymorphisms in the HMG-CoA reductase gene may be associated with some plasma lipid metabolic phenotypes in patients with coronary heart disease. Tong, Y., Zhang, S., Li, H., Su, Z., Kong, X., Liu, H., Xiao, C., Sun, Y., Shi, J.J. Lipids (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Can statins put the brakes on Alzheimer's disease? Whitfield, J.F. Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeting eNOS for stroke protection. Endres, M., Laufs, U., Liao, J.K., Moskowitz, M.A. Trends Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Stroke, statins, and cholesterol. A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Blauw, G.J., Lagaay, A.M., Smelt, A.H., Westendorp, R.G. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypercholesterolaemia in the elderly: is drug treatment justified? Tikkanen, M.J. Eur. Heart J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. The pleiotropic effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: their role in osteoporosis and dementia. Waldman, A., Kritharides, L. Drugs (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on coronary artery disease as assessed by electron-beam computed tomography. Callister, T.Q., Raggi, P., Cooil, B., Lippolis, N.J., Russo, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Sterol resistance in CHO cells traced to point mutation in SREBP cleavage-activating protein. Hua, X., Nohturfft, A., Goldstein, J.L., Brown, M.S. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of pravastatin on outcomes after cardiac transplantation. Kobashigawa, J.A., Katznelson, S., Laks, H., Johnson, J.A., Yeatman, L., Wang, X.M., Chia, D., Terasaki, P.I., Sabad, A., Cogert, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on the coronary endothelium in patients with coronary artery disease. Treasure, C.B., Klein, J.L., Weintraub, W.S., Talley, J.D., Stillabower, M.E., Kosinski, A.S., Zhang, J., Boccuzzi, S.J., Cedarholm, J.C., Alexander, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Upregulation of low density lipoprotein receptor by gemfibrozil, a hypolipidemic agent, in human hepatoma cells through stabilization of mRNA transcripts. Goto, D., Okimoto, T., Ono, M., Shimotsu, H., Abe, K., Tsujita, Y., Kuwano, M. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The molecular mechanism of the induction of the low density lipoprotein receptor by chenodeoxycholic acid in cultured human cells. Kawabe, Y., Shimokawa, T., Matsumoto, A., Honda, M., Wada, Y., Yazaki, Y., Endo, A., Itakura, H., Kodama, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Up-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in left-sided human colon cancer. Notarnicola, M., Messa, C., Pricci, M., Guerra, V., Altomare, D.F., Montemurro, S., Caruso, M.G. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Lipid-lowering response of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin is influenced by polymorphisms in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in Brazilian patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Salazar, L.A., Hirata, M.H., Quintão, E.C., Hirata, R.D. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Human genes involved in cholesterol metabolism: chromosomal mapping of the loci for the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase with cDNA probes. Lindgren, V., Luskey, K.L., Russell, D.W., Francke, U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Conserved domains responsible for catalytic activity and sterol-regulated degradation. Luskey, K.L., Stevens, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene expression by CuZn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and HepG2 cells. De Felice, B., Santillo, M., Serù, R., Damiano, S., Matrone, G., Wilson, R.R., Mondola, P. Gene Expr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Lamin B, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis induction by a combination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and COX-2 inhibitors: a novel approach in developing effective chemopreventive regimens. Swamy, M.V., Cooma, I., Reddy, B.S., Rao, C.V. Int. J. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. In vivo regulation of human mononuclear leukocyte 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Decreased enzyme catalytic efficiency in familial hypercholesterolemia. Stacpoole, P.W., Bridge, D.M., Alvarez, I.M., Goldberg, R.B., Harwood, H.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Manipulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis as a possible therapeutic option in mevalonate kinase deficiency. Schneiders, M.S., Houten, S.M., Turkenburg, M., Wanders, R.J., Waterham, H.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Diverse effects of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase on the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in endothelial cells. Rasmussen, L.M., Hansen, P.R., Nabipour, M.T., Olesen, P., Kristiansen, M.T., Ledet, T. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Accelerated degradation of HMG CoA reductase mediated by binding of insig-1 to its sterol-sensing domain. Sever, N., Yang, T., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L., DeBose-Boyd, R.A. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism in estrogen-treated men. Angelin, B., Olivecrona, H., Reihnér, E., Rudling, M., Ståhlberg, D., Eriksson, M., Ewerth, S., Henriksson, P., Einarsson, K. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase: identification of the site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase in vitro and in intact rat liver. Clarke, P.R., Hardie, D.G. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. A paucimorphic variant in the HMG-CoA reductase gene is associated with lipid-lowering response to statin treatment in diabetes: a GoDARTS study. Donnelly, L.A., Doney, A.S., Dannfald, J., Whitley, A.L., Lang, C.C., Morris, A.D., Donnan, P.T., Palmer, C.N. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2008) [Pubmed]
  30. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors increase the binding activity and nuclear level of Oct-1 in mononuclear cells. Ortego, M., Hernández, A.G., Bustos, C., Blanco-Colio, L.M., Hernández-Presa, M.A., Tuñón, J., Egido, J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase: a 3-dimensional view. Istvan, E. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. The relationship between cholesterol and stroke: implications for antihyperlipidaemic therapy in older patients. Sarti, C., Kaarisalo, M., Tuomilehto, J. Drugs & aging. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is sterol-dependently cleaved by cathepsin L-type cysteine protease in the isolated endoplasmic reticulum. Moriyama, T., Wada, M., Urade, R., Kito, M., Katunuma, N., Ogawa, T., Simoni, R.D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. LDL receptor gene transcription is selectively induced by t10c12-CLA but not by c9t11-CLA in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Ringseis, R., K??nig, B., Leuner, B., Schubert, S., Nass, N., Stangl, G., Eder, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Gp78, a membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase, associates with Insig-1 and couples sterol-regulated ubiquitination to degradation of HMG CoA reductase. Song, B.L., Sever, N., DeBose-Boyd, R.A. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Beneficial effects of cytokine induced hyperlipidemia. Feingold, K.R., Hardardóttir, I., Grunfeld, C. Zeitschrift für Ernährungswissenschaft. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNAs in human liver. Rudling, M., Angelin, B., Ståhle, L., Reihnér, E., Sahlin, S., Olivecrona, H., Björkhem, I., Einarsson, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Proximal tubular cholesterol loading after mitochondrial, but not glycolytic, blockade. Zager, R.A., Johnson, A.C., Hanson, S.Y. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Insulin generates free radicals in human fibroblasts ex vivo by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism, which is inhibited by pravastatin. Ceolotto, G., Papparella, I., Lenzini, L., Sartori, M., Mazzoni, M., Iori, E., Franco, L., Gallo, A., de Kreutzenberg, S.V., Tiengo, A., Pessina, A.C., Avogaro, A., Semplicini, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Copper induces the expression of cholesterogenic genes in human macrophages. Svensson, P.A., Englund, M.C., Markström, E., Ohlsson, B.G., Jernås, M., Billig, H., Torgerson, J.S., Wiklund, O., Carlsson, L.M., Carlsson, B. Atherosclerosis (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Homocysteine induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase in vascular endothelial cells: a mechanism for development of atherosclerosis? Li, H., Lewis, A., Brodsky, S., Rieger, R., Iden, C., Goligorsky, M.S. Circulation (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Hepatic metabolism of cholesterol in Crohn's disease. Effect of partial resection of ileum. Akerlund, J.E., Reihnér, E., Angelin, B., Rudling, M., Ewerth, S., Björkhem, I., Einarsson, K. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Genetic determinants of responsiveness to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin in patients with molecularly defined heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Leitersdorf, E., Eisenberg, S., Eliav, O., Friedlander, Y., Berkman, N., Dann, E.J., Landsberger, D., Sehayek, E., Meiner, V., Wurm, M. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  44. The novel cholesterol-lowering drug SR-12813 inhibits cholesterol synthesis via an increased degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Berkhout, T.A., Simon, H.M., Patel, D.D., Bentzen, C., Niesor, E., Jackson, B., Suckling, K.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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