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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in Kentucky and Arkansas.

The effect of previous insecticide use patterns for horn fly control on the susceptibility spectrum of horn fly (Haematobia irritans [L.]) populations from Kentucky and Arkansas is described. Populations of horn flies from both states were tested with three pyrethroids (cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, and permethrin), three organophosphates (diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, and tetrachlorvinphos), and a chlorinated hydrocarbon (methoxychlor). Dose-mortality data indicated insecticide resistance in Arkansas and Kentucky. Two permethrin-resistant horn fly populations in Kentucky that did not have a history of exposure to methoxychlor were cross-resistant to this chlorinated hydrocarbon. Horn fly populations from both states with a history of at least three consecutive years of exposure to various pyrethroid ear tags were subsequently exposed to cattle tagged with cyhalothrin-impregnated ear tags for 15-16 wk. Such exposure resulted in a decrease in susceptibility to this pyrethroid (ranging from approximately 30 to greater than 100-fold) when compared with levels before treatment. Horn fly populations from Arkansas resistant to cyhalothrin (as a result of exposure to cyhalothrin ear tags) were cross-resistant to pirimiphos methyl. Seasonal exposure of an Arkansas and Kentucky horn fly population to cattle with ear tags impregnated with pirimiphos methyl resulted in a significant decrease in susceptibility to this organophosphate.[1]


  1. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in Kentucky and Arkansas. Cilek, J.E., Steelman, C.D., Knapp, F.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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