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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cytokine influence on killing of fresh chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by human leukocytes.

The feasibility of combining the Lym-1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was evaluated. We used an in vitro tumor lysis model that incorporated fresh CLL cells from 21 different patients as targets for two distinct normal human leukocyte effector subsets, neutrophils, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lym-1 antigen (Lym-1-Ag) expression varied greatly and did not correlate with the expression of other CLL-associated antigens such as CD5, CD19, or HLA-DR. CLL cells were not lysed by neutrophils alone or with IFN-gamma in the absence of Lym-1. Neutrophil Lym-1-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the absence of IFN-gamma was weak and inconsistent. IFN-gamma exposure induced MoAb-dependent lysis of 80% of 21 CLL targets and resulted in an eightfold augmentation of neutrophil ADCC against the remainder. Cytotoxicity correlated directly and positively with Lym-1-Ag expression. Confirmation of the need for interaction between neutrophil IgG Fc receptors (Fc gamma Rs) and the Fc portion of the Lym-1 MoAb was obtained by demonstrating that purified Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (SpA) inhibited ADCC. IFN-gamma exposure caused no consistent alternations in Lym-1-Ag expression on CLL cells so that target antigen upregulation was unlikely to account for augmentation of neutrophil ADCC. PBMCs alone, exposed to interkeukin-2 (IL-2) or IFN-gamma, or with Lym-1 in the presence or absence of IL-2 or IFN-gamma were unable to lyse CLL targets. PBMCs were able to kill Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells in conjunction with Lym-1, so their ability to interact with Lym-1-coated targets and their lytic functions appeared intact. These results emphasize the importance of examining fresh tumor cells with different leukocyte effector subsets before designing a clinical trial that combines a therapeutic MoAb with a cytokine.[1]


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