The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Plasma cocaine and tetracaine levels following application of topical anesthesia in a swine laceration model.

Standard TAC (0.5% tetracaine, 0.05% epinephrine, and 11.8% cocaine) solution is finding increased use as a topical anesthetic for lacerations. The extent of systemic absorption of TAC components and their resultant physiologic effects are unclear. Absorption of cocaine or tetracaine may result in serious toxicity. The investigators hypothesized that there are no measurable plasma cocaine or tetracaine levels after application of TAC in a swine laceration model. After an overnight fast 10 domestic swine underwent tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, femoral venous, and arterial cannulation. Maintenance anesthesia with intermittent thiopental and pancuronium was provided to maintain stage III anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (BP), plasma cocaine, and tetracaine levels were measured at intervals for 180 minutes. Five milliliters of TAC was applied for 15 minutes to a standardized facial laceration in experimental swine (n = 5). Randomly labeled plasma samples were placed in vials containing 2% sodium fluoride and 1% potassium oxalate, immediately refrigerated, and analyzed for cocaine and tetracaine using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Significant changes in HR and mean BP, compared with baseline values, were analyzed using Dunnett's multiple range test. Plasma cocaine levels were measurable in all experimental swine after 10 minutes, while no tetracaine was detectable. No significant differences in HR or BP changes were observed between experimental and control subjects. Application of standard TAC solution results in measurable plasma cocaine levels, but not tetracaine. Further studies into anesthetic formulation, as well as timing and technique of application, are required before consensus on optimal emergency departmental use of topical anesthesia can be achieved.[1]


  1. Plasma cocaine and tetracaine levels following application of topical anesthesia in a swine laceration model. Terndrup, T.E., Mariani, P.J., Walls, H.C., Spear, R.M., Karatay, C.M. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities