The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Tracheostomy


High impact information on Tracheostomy

  • Acetylcysteine and speaking tracheostomy tubes [5].
  • The sheep breathed room air through an endo-tracheal tube inserted through a tracheostomy, and samples of expired gas were collected for measurement of the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption [6].
  • FINDINGS: At the end of the study, after median follow-up of 18 months, 122 (50.4%) placebo-treated patients and 134 (56.8%) of those who received 100 mg/day riluzole were alive without tracheostomy (unadjusted risk 0.79, p = 0.076; adjusted risk 0.65, p = 0.002) [7].
  • These clinical and EMG findings indicate that Gerhardt's syndrome is not caused by paralysis of vocal-cord abductors, but represents a focal laryngeal dystonia which may be treatable by botulinum toxin injections of vocal-cord adductor muscles rather than by arytenoidopexy or tracheostomy [8].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: IV injections of nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside produced dose-dependent and sustained increases in the exhaled levels of nitric oxide measured by chemiluminescence in awake lambs with tracheostomies [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tracheostomy

  • INTERVENTIONS: Animals were instrumented with femoral and pulmonary arterial catheters and underwent an LD50 cotton smoke inhalation injury via a tracheostomy under halothane anesthesia [10].
  • After several days for recovery, while the animals were awake, the effects of CO2 and hypoxia on pH of the film of CSF between the pia and arachnoid (pHMVS) were recorded along with end-tidal PCO2 and PO2 (mass spectrometer), ventilation (pneumotachometer) through a permanent tracheostomy, and, when possible, ear arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) [11].
  • Three cats, anesthetized with xylazine and pentobarbital sodium and prepared with acute tracheostomy and femoral arterial catheter, and three awake cats, prepared with a small tracheal catheter and femoral arterial catheter, were subjected to acute hypercapnia (FICO2 = 0.00, 0.06, and 0.08) [12].
  • Spontaneous inhalation of nicotine-laced cigarette smoke (10% concn, 750 ml vol) via a tracheostomy tube caused distinct and consistent changes in breathing pattern on the first or second breath of inhaled smoke: an apnea in three dogs, an augmented inspiration in two dogs, and rapid shallow breathing in one dog [13].
  • After four months of continuous therapy, she developed skin and laryngeal involvement requiring emergency tracheostomy; subsequent therapy with amphotericin B resulted in resolution of her disease [14].

Biological context of Tracheostomy

  • The specimens analysed include urine, sputa, tracheostomy swabs, central venous pressure line catheter tips, blood cultures, wound drainage fluid, cerebro-spinal fluid, pleural fluid and peritoneal dialysate samples [15].
  • Sinusoidal volume changes were delivered through a tracheostomy at 16 Hz, a tidal volume of 1 or 2 ml/kg, and inspired O2 fraction of 0 [16].
  • CO2 laser cordectomy is first choice treatment for T1a glottic carcinoma, offering intra- and post-operative advantages: reduced traumatism, lack of tracheostomy, low bleeding, fast functional recovery (deglutition and speech), brief hospital stay, and low management costs [17].
  • By the age of 3 years she had developed a phenotype very suggestive of RTT, but had not demonstrated deceleration of head growth and the development of expressive language was prevented by the presence of the tracheostomy [18].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In an ALS clinic population, the total Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-revised score at baseline is a strong predictor of death or tracheostomy independently of forced vital capacity and after adjustment for age at baseline, sex, and symptom duration [19].

Anatomical context of Tracheostomy


Associations of Tracheostomy with chemical compounds

  • Following multiple respiratory arrests, one affected member was successfully managed with aggressive pulmonary care, tracheostomy, and intermittent home mechanical ventilation, which, combined with carbidopa/levodopa, allowed for a functional lifestyle with improvement in apathy, mobility, and nutritional status [25].
  • INTERVENTIONS: After anesthesia with 1.2 g/kg of urethane, a tracheostomy and bilateral vagotomy were performed [26].
  • Five weeks later, half of the animals were given an intratracheal injection of 1.5 U of bleomycin sulfate via a tracheostomy; control animals received saline intratracheally by the same technique [27].
  • Elevation of daytime norepinephrine and normetanephrine with return to control levels following tracheostomy implies increased sympathetic activity throughout the day [28].
  • 99mTc DTPA dissolved in saline was superfused through nasal and orolaryngeal catheters on to nasal and tracheobronchial airways; a small particle aerosol of nebulised 99mTc DTPA was delivered to the bronchoalveolar airways through a tracheostomy [29].

Gene context of Tracheostomy

  • In this study, we determined that recombinant rat GM-CSF improved lung liquid clearance (as reflected by lung tissue wet:dry ratios) in ethanol-fed rats anesthetized and then challenged with 2 ml of saline via a tracheostomy tube [30].
  • We compared the early and late pulmonary effects of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) challenges in awake dogs with chronic tracheostomies [31].
  • We suggest that bacteria and low SP-D support neutrophilic inflammation in the lower respiratory tract of nonsymptomatic with children with tracheostomy [32].
  • Ten patients (7 with COPD, 3 with restrictive disorders) discontinued NPPV at 6 months, and 3 progressed to tracheostomy [33].
  • Tracheostomy in a patient with SARS [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tracheostomy

  • Forty-nine percent of swallow assessments were scored as failed in the critical care patients with HVLP tracheostomy tube cuffs, and there were no episodes of aspiration following swallow assessment in the LVLP group (p<.05) [35].
  • The prognosis for independent ventilation (+/- tracheostomy) was worst for patients with NMO, except for one patient who received plasma exchange, and better then expected for PMS, despite poor preventilation functional status [36].
  • One patient was treated by tracheotomy placed through a vertical midline incision and 2 patients were treated by cricothyroidotomy followed by elective tracheostomy and closure of the cricothyroidotomy [37].
  • Of those with PMS, all but two required a wheelchair or were bedbound before VS and survived a median of 22 months; 14 were mechanically ventilated and seven underwent subsequent lifelong tracheostomy; three had tracheostomy only [36].
  • After tracheostomy and intravascular cannulations under isoflurane anesthesia, eight rabbits were placed on a sling that allowed for free movement of the head and extremities [38].


  1. Sleep-induced apnea syndrome. Prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and their reversal after tracheostomy. Tilkian, A.G., Guilleminault, C., Schroeder, J.S., Lehrman, K.L., Simmons, F.B., Dement, W.C. Am. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Riluzole. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Bryson, H.M., Fulton, B., Benfield, P. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Investigation of a multiyear multiple critical care unit outbreak due to relatively drug-sensitive Acinetobacter baumannii: risk factors and attributable mortality. Kaul, R., Burt, J.A., Cork, L., Dedier, H., Garcia, M., Kennedy, C., Brunton, J., Krajden, M., Conly, J. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Neither dopamine nor dobutamine corrects mesenteric blood flow depression caused by positive end-expiratory pressure in a rat model of acute lung injury. Lee, R.D., Choe, E., Flint, L., Steinberg, S. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Acetylcysteine and speaking tracheostomy tubes. Shinnick, J.P., Freedman, A.P. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of metabolic CO2 production in ventilatory response to steady-state exercise. Phillipson, E.A., Bowes, G., Townsend, E.R., Duffin, J., Cooper, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Dose-ranging study of riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Riluzole Study Group II. Lacomblez, L., Bensimon, G., Leigh, P.N., Guillet, P., Meininger, V. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Stridor and focal laryngeal dystonia. Marion, M.H., Klap, P., Perrin, A., Cohen, M. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Exhaled nitric oxide as a marker for organic nitrate tolerance. Husain, M., Adrie, C., Ichinose, F., Kavosi, M., Zapol, W.M. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Significant reduction in minute ventilation and peak inspiratory pressures with arteriovenous CO2 removal during severe respiratory failure. Tao, W., Brunston, R.L., Bidani, A., Pirtle, P., Dy, J., Cardenas, V.J., Traber, D.L., Zwischenberger, J.B. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Anomalous hypoxic acidification of medullary ventral surface. Xu, F.D., Spellman, M.J., Sato, M., Baumgartner, J.E., Ciricillo, S.F., Severinghaus, J.W. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Arterial-end tidal PCO2 equilibration in the cat during acute hypercapnia. Fordyce, W.E., Kanter, R.K. Respiration physiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of nicotine in cigarette smoke on acute ventilatory responses in awake dogs. Lee, L.Y., Morton, R.F., Frazier, D.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Failure of ketoconazole in an immunosuppressed patient with pulmonary blastomycosis. Greene, N.B., Baughman, R.P., Kim, C.K., Roselle, G.A. Chest (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Systematic bacteriological monitoring of intensive care unit patients: the results of a twelve month study. Shield, M.J., Hammill, H.J., Neale, D.A. Intensive care medicine. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of mean airway pressure on gas exchange during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Boynton, B.R., Villanueva, D., Hammond, M.D., Vreeland, P.N., Buckley, B., Frantz, I.D. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Oncological and functional results of CO2 laser cordectomy. Policarpo, M., Aluffi, P., Brovelli, F., Borello, G., Pia, F. Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. A case of multiple congenital anomalies in association with Rett syndrome confirmed by MECP2 mutation screening. Ellaway, C.J., Badawi, N., Raffaele, L., Christodoulou, J., Leonard, H. Clin. Dysmorphol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The ALSFRSr predicts survival time in an ALS clinic population. Kaufmann, P., Levy, G., Thompson, J.L., Delbene, M.L., Battista, V., Gordon, P.H., Rowland, L.P., Levin, B., Mitsumoto, H. Neurology (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Pharmacokinetics and sputum penetration of enoxacin after twice daily oral dosing for seven days. Dobbs, B.R., Gazeley, L.R., Stewart, I.A., Edwards, I.R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Bradykinin receptor blockade does not affect oxygen-mediated pulmonary vasodilation in fetal lambs. Banerjee, A., Roman, C., Heymann, M.A. Pediatr. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure on the development of lung damage in experimental acid aspiration pneumonia in the rabbit. Sohma, A., Brampton, W.J., Dunnill, M.S., Sykes, M.K. Intensive care medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Carbon dioxide-responsive laryngeal receptors in the dog. Anderson, J.W., Sant'Ambrogio, F.B., Orani, G.P., Sant'Ambrogio, G., Mathew, O.P. Respiration physiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Portable ultrasonic scanning of the anterior neck before percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Hatfield, A., Bodenham, A. Anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Familial parkinsonism, apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation: successful long-term management. Roy, E.P., Riggs, J.E., Martin, J.D., Ringel, R.A., Gutmann, L. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Low-dose mirtazapine increases genioglossus activity in the anesthetized rat. Berry, R.B., Koch, G.L., Hayward, L.F. Sleep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Biosynthesis of collagen crosslinks. III. In vivo labeling and stability of lung collagen in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Last, J.A., Reiser, K.M. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Urinary catecholamines before and after tracheostomy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Fletcher, E.C., Miller, J., Schaaf, J.W., Fletcher, J.G. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Clearance of 99mTc DTPA from guinea pig nasal, tracheobronchial, and bronchoalveolar airways. Greiff, L., Wollmer, P., Erjefält, I., Pipkorn, U., Persson, C.G. Thorax (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment improves alveolar epithelial barrier function in alcoholic rat lung. Pelaez, A., Bechara, R.I., Joshi, P.C., Brown, L.A., Guidot, D.M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. TNF but not IL-1 in dogs causes lethal lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction similar to human sepsis. Eichacker, P.Q., Hoffman, W.D., Farese, A., Banks, S.M., Kuo, G.C., MacVittie, T.J., Natanson, C. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Airway inflammation in children with tracheostomy. Griese, M., Felber, J., Reiter, K., Strong, P., Reid, K., Belohradsky, B.H., Jäger, G., Nicolai, T. Pediatr. Pulmonol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy and compliance with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Criner, G.J., Brennan, K., Travaline, J.M., Kreimer, D. Chest (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Tracheostomy in a patient with SARS. Morgan, P. British journal of anaesthesia. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A low-volume, low-pressure tracheal tube cuff reduces pulmonary aspiration. Young, P.J., Pakeerathan, S., Blunt, M.C., Subramanya, S. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in multiple sclerosis. Pittock, S.J., Weinshenker, B.G., Wijdicks, E.F. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Management of upper airway obstruction in the intensive care unit. Schecter, W.P., Wilson, R.S. Crit. Care Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  38. An animal model for surgical anesthesia and analgesia: characterization with isoflurane anesthesia and remifentanil analgesia. Hayashida, M., Fukunaga, A., Hanaoka, K. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities