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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of skeletal muscle casein kinase II by insulin is not diminished in subjects with insulin resistance.

Insulin resistance, which may precede the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians, appears to result from a postreceptor defect in signal transduction in skeletal muscle. To identify the putative postreceptor lesion responsible for insulin resistance in Pima Indians, we investigated the influence of insulin on the activity of casein kinase II (CKII) in skeletal muscle of seven insulin-sensitive, four insulin-resistant, nondiabetic, and five insulin-resistant diabetic Pima Indians during a 2 h hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. In sensitive subjects, CKII was transiently activated reaching a maximum over basal activity (42%) at 45 min before declining. CKII was also stimulated in resistant (19%) and diabetic (34%) subjects. Basal CKII activity in resistant subjects was 40% higher than in either sensitive or diabetic subjects, although the concentration of CKII protein, as determined by Western blotting, was equal among the three groups. Basal CKII activity was correlated with fasting plasma insulin concentrations, suggesting that the higher activity in resistant subjects resulted from insulin action. Extracts of muscle obtained from all three groups either before or after insulin administration were treated with immobilized alkaline phosphatase, which reduced and equalized CKII activity. These results suggest that insulin stimulates CKII activity in human skeletal muscle by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of either CKII or of an effector molecule, and support the idea that elevated basal activity in resistant subjects results from insulin action. It appears that the ability of insulin to activate CKII in skeletal muscle is not impaired in insulin-resistant Pima Indians, and that the biochemical lesion responsible for insulin resistance occurs either downstream from CKII or in a different pathway of insulin action.[1]


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