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Chemical Compound Review

potassium iodide     potassium iodide

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Disease relevance of potassium iodide

  • We studied the relation in Pima Indians between obesity in children and diabetes during pregnancy in their mothers [1].
  • Development and progression of renal disease in Pima Indians with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Renal Disease Study Group [2].
  • These data suggest that, like other populations at high risk for NIDDM such as Pima Indians and Micronesians, Mexican Americans have more hyperinsulinemia than can be accounted for by their adiposity [3].
  • To determine whether highly saturated bile is a congenital or acquired characteristic of Pima Indians and to elucidate the basis of the rapid postpubertal increase in gallstones in Pimas, we studied the bile of 66 Pimas nine to 21 years of age [4].
  • Relatively low plasma leptin concentrations precede weight gain in Pima Indians [5].

Psychiatry related information on potassium iodide

  • Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between locus of control (LOC) (internal and external) and physical activity in Pima Indians and to determine whether this relationship is affected by the presence of diabetes [7].
  • In the present study, the relationship between ad-libitum food intake rate and obesity was evaluated over 4 days on a metabolic ward in 28 healthy Pima Indian men (Mean +/- SD; 29 +/- 7 y, 100.4 +/- 27.1 kg, 33 +/- 10% body fat) using an automated food selection system containing a large variety of foods [8].
  • RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Subjects were 65 Pima Indian adults (35 men/30 women, age 33+/-8 years [mean+/-standard deviation]) participating in a study of eating behavior and 78 Pima Indian children (36 boys/42 girls, age 10.4+/-0.3 years) participating in a study of childhood obesity [9].
  • The relationship between energy expenditure and sleep stages was investigated overnight in 29 subjects (14 Caucasians and 15 Pima Indians, 18 males and 11 females; mean +/- SD, 31 +/- 7 yr, 83 +/- 26 kg, 27 +/- 11% fat) [10].

High impact information on potassium iodide

  • Association studies were performed in 642 Pima subjects (390 with NIDDM and 252 without NIDDM) [11].
  • Pima subjects homozygous for the Trp64Arg beta 3-adrenergic-receptor mutation have an earlier onset of NIDDM and tend to have a lower resting metabolic rate [11].
  • The relations between insulinemia, insulin resistance, and blood pressure differ among racial groups and may be mediated by mechanisms active in whites, but not in Pima Indians or blacks [12].
  • We studied 116 Pima Indians, 53 whites, and 42 blacks who were normotensive and did not have diabetes; the groups were comparable with respect to mean age (29, 30, and 31 years, respectively) and blood pressure (113/70, 111/68, and 113/68 mm Hg, respectively) [12].
  • Peripheral leukocyte DNA from 217 unrelated persons, including blacks, whites, and Pima Indians, was analyzed by restriction-enzyme digestion, blotting to nitrocellulose filters, and hybridization to cloned [32P]insulin-gene probes [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of potassium iodide


Biological context of potassium iodide


Anatomical context of potassium iodide

  • In 52 adult male Pima Indians, insulin action (euglycemic clamp), percentage body fat (pFAT; underwater weighing), and muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition (percutaneous biopsy of vastus lateralis) were determined [22].
  • We have previously reported reduced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity associated with reduced fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant Pima Indians [23].
  • Adipose tissue and muscle lipoprotein lipase and postheparin hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities have been measured in a group of 21 Pima Indian males over a wide range of body weight to determine the relationship between obesity and these lipase activities [24].
  • Glycogen synthase fractional activity (GSFA) was measured in cultured myoblasts from 21 Pima Indians characterized in vivo using indirect calorimetry and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp [25].
  • We have compared the capillary density and muscle fiber type of musculus vastus lateralis with in vivo insulin action determined by the euglycemic clamp (M value) in 23 Caucasians and 41 Pima Indian nondiabetic men [26].

Associations of potassium iodide with other chemical compounds

  • In this study, kinetics of VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride were determined in seven nondiabetic (ND) and seven non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) Pima Indian subjects on high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HICHO) diets [27].
  • Comparison of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Pima male and female subjects showed the same relationships as those in Caucasians (i.e., higher in male subjects until the older age groups), but Pima male and female subjects had similar HDL cholesterol levels [16].
  • Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy in Pima Indian women. Long-term effects on offspring [28].
  • In addition, the observed increase in transport of fatty acids across cells expressing Thr54 IFABP suggests a plausible physiologic mechanism for our prior observation that Pima Indians with a Thr54 IFABP genotype have increased post-absorptive lipid oxidation rates and are more insulin-resistant than Pimas with a Ala54 IFABP genotype [29].
  • As opposed to lean and obese Caucasian subjects, energy expenditure failed to markedly decrease during propranolol infusion in both nondiabetic and diabetic Pima Indians [30].

Gene context of potassium iodide

  • An Asp358Ala polymorphism of the IL6R has been reported to associate with obesity in Pima Indians [31].
  • We performed detailed comparative analyses of the gene, termed PDK4, in insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive Pima Indians, and detected five DNA variants with comparable frequencies in both subject groups [32].
  • Prior microarray studies comparing global gene expression patterns in preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells isolated from nonobese nondiabetic versus obese nondiabetic Pima Indians showed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is upregulated in obese subjects [33].
  • Furthermore, UCP3 gene expression was found to correlate negatively with body mass index and positively with sleeping metabolic rate in Pima Indians [34].
  • Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of potassium iodide


  1. Excessive obesity in offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy. Pettitt, D.J., Baird, H.R., Aleck, K.A., Bennett, P.H., Knowler, W.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Development and progression of renal disease in Pima Indians with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Renal Disease Study Group. Nelson, R.G., Bennett, P.H., Beck, G.J., Tan, M., Knowler, W.C., Mitch, W.E., Hirschman, G.H., Myers, B.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperinsulinemia in a population at high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Haffner, S.M., Stern, M.P., Hazuda, H.P., Pugh, J.A., Patterson, J.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of lithogenic bile during puberty in Pima indians. Bennion, L.J., Knowler, W.C., Mott, D.M., Spagnola, A.M., Bennett, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Relatively low plasma leptin concentrations precede weight gain in Pima Indians. Ravussin, E., Pratley, R.E., Maffei, M., Wang, H., Friedman, J.M., Bennett, P.H., Bogardus, C. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children. Salbe, A.D., Fontvieille, A.M., Pettitt, D.J., Ravussin, E. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Relationship of locus of control to physical activity among people with and without diabetes. Gregg, E.W., Kriska, A.M., Narayan, K.M., Knowler, W.C. Diabetes Care (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Do obese eat faster than lean subjects? Food intake studies in Pima Indian men. Rising, R., Larson, D.E., Ravussin, E. Obes. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Lack of relationship between calcium intake and body size in an obesity-prone population. Venti, C.A., Tataranni, P.A., Salbe, A.D. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Relationship between sleep stages and metabolic rate in humans. Fontvieille, A.M., Rising, R., Spraul, M., Larson, D.E., Ravussin, E. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Time of onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic-receptor gene. Walston, J., Silver, K., Bogardus, C., Knowler, W.C., Celi, F.S., Austin, S., Manning, B., Strosberg, A.D., Stern, M.P., Raben, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Racial differences in the relation between blood pressure and insulin resistance. Saad, M.F., Lillioja, S., Nyomba, B.L., Castillo, C., Ferraro, R., De Gregorio, M., Ravussin, E., Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H., Howard, B.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of the human insulin gene: a genetic marker for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Rotwein, P.S., Chirgwin, J., Province, M., Knowler, W.C., Pettitt, D.J., Cordell, B., Goodman, H.M., Permutt, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Relationship between obesity and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo and in vitro in Pima Indians. Bogardus, C., Lillioja, S., Mott, D., Reaven, G.R., Kashiwagi, A., Foley, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Lactose malabsorption among the Pima indians of Arizona. Johnson, J.D., Simoons, F.J., Hurwitz, R., Grange, A., Mitchell, C.H., Sinatra, F.R., Sunshine, P., Robertson, W.V., Bennett, P.H., Kretchmer, N. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the Pima Indians: distributions differing from those of Caucasians. Howard, B.V., Davis, M.P., Pettitt, D.J., Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Absence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in Pima Indian children with diabetes mellitus. Dabelea, D., Palmer, J.P., Bennett, P.H., Pettitt, D.J., Knowler, W.C. Diabetologia (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1: genetic polymorphisms are associated with Type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians independently of obesity and expression in adipocyte and muscle. Nair, S., Lee, Y.H., Lindsay, R.S., Walker, B.R., Tataranni, P.A., Bogardus, C., Baier, L.J., Permana, P.A. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. A retrospective population-based study. Hoge, C.W., Schwartz, B., Talkington, D.F., Breiman, R.F., MacNeill, E.M., Englender, S.J. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Reduced sympathetic nervous activity. A potential mechanism predisposing to body weight gain. Spraul, M., Ravussin, E., Fontvieille, A.M., Rising, R., Larson, D.E., Anderson, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. A calpain-10 gene polymorphism is associated with reduced muscle mRNA levels and insulin resistance. Baier, L.J., Permana, P.A., Yang, X., Pratley, R.E., Hanson, R.L., Shen, G.Q., Mott, D., Knowler, W.C., Cox, N.J., Horikawa, Y., Oda, N., Bell, G.I., Bogardus, C. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. Pan, D.A., Lillioja, S., Milner, M.R., Kriketos, A.D., Baur, L.A., Bogardus, C., Storlien, L.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle. Kida, Y., Esposito-Del Puente, A., Bogardus, C., Mott, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of lipase activities in obese Pima indians. Decreases with weight reduction. Reitman, J.S., Kosmakos, F.C., Howard, B.V., Taskinen, M.R., Kuusi, T., Nikkila, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Postabsorptive respiratory quotient and insulin-stimulated glucose storage rate in nondiabetic pima indians are related To glycogen synthase fractional activity in cultured myoblasts. Mott, D.M., Pratley, R.E., Bogardus, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Skeletal muscle capillary density and fiber type are possible determinants of in vivo insulin resistance in man. Lillioja, S., Young, A.A., Culter, C.L., Ivy, J.L., Abbott, W.G., Zawadzki, J.K., Yki-Järvinen, H., Christin, L., Secomb, T.W., Bogardus, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of a high-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat diet on apolipoprotein B and triglyceride metabolism in Pima Indians. Abbott, W.G., Swinburn, B., Ruotolo, G., Hara, H., Patti, L., Harper, I., Grundy, S.M., Howard, B.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy in Pima Indian women. Long-term effects on offspring. Pettitt, D.J., Bennett, P.H., Saad, M.F., Charles, M.A., Nelson, R.G., Knowler, W.C. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. A polymorphism in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein alters fatty acid transport across Caco-2 cells. Baier, L.J., Bogardus, C., Sacchettini, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Thermic effect of glucose in obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ravussin, E., Zawadzki, J.K. Diabetes (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Variation in the interleukin-6 receptor gene associates with type 2 diabetes in Danish whites. Hamid, Y.H., Urhammer, S.A., Jensen, D.P., Glümer, C., Borch-Johnsen, K., Jørgensen, T., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and characterization of PDK4 on 7q21.3 encoding a fourth pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme in human. Rowles, J., Scherer, S.W., Xi, T., Majer, M., Nickle, D.C., Rommens, J.M., Popov, K.M., Harris, R.A., Riebow, N.L., Xia, J., Tsui, L.C., Bogardus, C., Prochazka, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) in Preadipocytes/Stromal Vascular Cells From Nonobese Nondiabetic Versus Obese Nondiabetic Pima Indians. Traurig, M.T., Permana, P.A., Nair, S., Kobes, S., Bogardus, C., Baier, L.J. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Human uncoupling proteins and obesity. Schrauwen, P., Walder, K., Ravussin, E. Obes. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Wolford, J.K., Bogardus, C., Ossowski, V., Prochazka, M. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Human primary myoblast cell cultures from non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects retain defects in insulin action. Thompson, D.B., Pratley, R., Ossowski, V. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Adiponectin and development of type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. Lindsay, R.S., Funahashi, T., Hanson, R.L., Matsuzawa, Y., Tanaka, S., Tataranni, P.A., Knowler, W.C., Krakoff, J. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in minorities in the United States. Carter, J.S., Pugh, J.A., Monterrosa, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Increased mortality with gallstone disease: results of a 20-year population-based survey in Pima Indians. Grimaldi, C.H., Nelson, R.G., Pettitt, D.J., Sampliner, R.E., Bennett, P.H., Knowler, W.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. An autosomal genomic scan for loci linked to type II diabetes mellitus and body-mass index in Pima Indians. Hanson, R.L., Ehm, M.G., Pettitt, D.J., Prochazka, M., Thompson, D.B., Timberlake, D., Foroud, T., Kobes, S., Baier, L., Burns, D.K., Almasy, L., Blangero, J., Garvey, W.T., Bennett, P.H., Knowler, W.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
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