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MeSH Review

Glucose Clamp Technique

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Disease relevance of Glucose Clamp Technique

  • Following an initial euglycemic clamp hypoglycemia was induced and after glucose recovery a second clamp was performed [1].
  • To separate the effects of glucose and insulin and the manner in which insulin is provided, the 4-h euglycemic clamp was performed in which fasting plasma glucose was maintained (95 +/- 2 mg/dl) while constant hyperinsulinemia was created (80 +/- 3 microU/ml) [2].
  • In vivo glucose disposal during a euglycemic clamp at an insulin infusion rate of 40 mU/m2 per min was reduced to 27% of nonobese controls (P less than 0.01) and improved to 78% of normal after weight loss of 43.1 +/- 3.1 kg (P less than 0.01) [3].
  • To determine whether [2(3)H], [3(3)H], and [6(14)C]glucose provide an equivalent assessment of glucose turnover in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and nondiabetic man, glucose utilization rates were measured using a simultaneous infusion of these isotopes before and during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps [4].
  • Insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp, insulin infusion rate: 40 mU. m(-2). min(-1)) was studied in 30 subjects with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), normal glucose tolerance, and a BMI <30 kg/m(2) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Glucose Clamp Technique


High impact information on Glucose Clamp Technique

  • Glycemic thresholds--the plasma glucose concentrations during each hypoglycemic clamp study at which a given symptom or biochemical measurement first exceeded its 95 percent confidence interval determined in the euglycemic clamp studies--were calculated for each variable [7].
  • To gain insight into the mechanism(s) of this hypoglycemic effect, purified recombinant Acrp30 was infused in conscious mice during a pancreatic euglycemic clamp [8].
  • Exercise 24 hours before the euglycemic clamp increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor and IRS-1 in obese and diabetic subjects but did not increase glucose uptake or PI 3-kinase association with IRS-1 upon insulin stimulation [9].
  • In 52 adult male Pima Indians, insulin action (euglycemic clamp), percentage body fat (pFAT; underwater weighing), and muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition (percutaneous biopsy of vastus lateralis) were determined [10].
  • To determine if insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) inhibits pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion in man, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was infused for 6 h at 10 during a euglycemic clamp in 10 normal men who were fasted for 32 h to enhance GH secretion [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glucose Clamp Technique


Biological context of Glucose Clamp Technique

  • Relative contribution of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis to insulin-mediated glucose uptake. A dose-response euglycemic clamp study in normal and diabetic rats [17].
  • To test whether partial eNOS deficiency facilitates the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension during metabolic stress, we examined effects of an 8-week high-fat diet on insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp) and arterial pressure in eNOS(+/-) mice [18].
  • Glucose kinetics were measured using steady-state tracer methodology in chronically catheterised, conscious virgin control and pregnant rats, firstly, during basal and low-dose hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions and secondly, during a three-step glucose infusion protocol (glucose infusion rates of 0, 60 and 150 min-1) [19].
  • This improved glucose homeostasis could not be explained satisfactorily by changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity or hepatic glucose output, determined with the euglycemic clamp technique, or by changes in fasting serum insulin levels or monocyte insulin binding [20].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in 11 normoalbuminuric and 9 microalbuminuric NIDDM patients matched for sex, age, body composition, glycemic control, diabetes duration, and therapy [21].

Anatomical context of Glucose Clamp Technique

  • In vivo stimulation of the insulin receptor kinase in human skeletal muscle. Correlation with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during euglycemic clamp studies [22].
  • Percutaneous biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were performed before and during a 440-min euglycemic clamp at plasma insulin concentrations of 89 +/- 5 and 1,470 +/- 49 microU/ml (mean +/- SEM); simultaneous glucose oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry [23].
  • Adipocyte insulin binding and in vivo insulin dose-response curves for glucose disposal using the euglycemic clamp technique were measured before and after therapy to assess the effect on receptor and postreceptor insulin action [24].
  • Furthermore, acute AICAR exposure has been found to reduce sterol and fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes incubated in vitro as well as suppress endogenous glucose production in rats under euglycemic clamp conditions [25].
  • It was observed that during either hyperglycemic or euglycemic clamps, peripheral glucose metabolism by muscle and adipose tissue of obese rats was similar to that of lean controls but at the cost, for the obese rats, of plasma insulin levels that were 3.5 times higher than control [26].

Associations of Glucose Clamp Technique with chemical compounds

  • Measurements were made during 2 h of: (a) insulin/glucose infusion (hyperinsulinemic [6 pmol/kg per min] euglycemic clamp), (b) exogenous glucose infusion at a rate matched to that attained during protocol a, and (c) exogenous fructose infusion at the same rate as for glucose infusion in protocol b [27].
  • Intraportal insulin infusion (1 and 2 mU/kg per min) after 7 d of dexamethasone treatment (2 mg/d) caused less suppression of endogenous glucose production, and less exogenous glucose was required to maintain an euglycemic clamp than in control animals [28].
  • MEASUREMENTS: Oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp technique), and fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels after a mixed meal [29].
  • Concomitantly, plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glycerol, and triglycerides (TGs) were significantly lower during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp compared with the saline study (NEFAs, P < 0.001; glycerol, P = 0.005; TGs P = 0.004) [30].
  • Insulin action was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic (approximately 100 mU/L) euglycemic clamp, with 2-deoxyglucose tracer for individual tissue evaluation, in chronically cannulated conscious animals [31].

Gene context of Glucose Clamp Technique


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glucose Clamp Technique


  1. Early posthypoglycemic insulin resistance in man is mainly an effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Attvall, S., Eriksson, B.M., Fowelin, J., von Schenck, H., Lager, I., Smith, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute regulation of human lymphocyte insulin receptors. Analysis by the glucose clamp. Helderman, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Restoration of insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients after weight loss. Effect on muscle glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT4. Friedman, J.E., Dohm, G.L., Leggett-Frazier, N., Elton, C.W., Tapscott, E.B., Pories, W.P., Caro, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Assessment of insulin action in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus using [6(14)C]glucose, [3(3)H]glucose, and [2(3)H]glucose. Differences in the apparent pattern of insulin resistance depending on the isotope used. Bell, P.M., Firth, R.G., Rizza, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Marchesini, G., Brizi, M., Bianchi, G., Tomassetti, S., Bugianesi, E., Lenzi, M., McCullough, A.J., Natale, S., Forlani, G., Melchionda, N. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Decreased insulin sensitivity and muscle enzyme activity in elderly subjects. Kruszynska, Y.T., Petranyi, G., Alberti, K.G. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasma glucose concentrations at the onset of hypoglycemic symptoms in patients with poorly controlled diabetes and in nondiabetics. Boyle, P.J., Schwartz, N.S., Shah, S.D., Clutter, W.E., Cryer, P.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. Combs, T.P., Berg, A.H., Obici, S., Scherer, P.E., Rossetti, L. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling in human muscle. Cusi, K., Maezono, K., Osman, A., Pendergrass, M., Patti, M.E., Pratipanawatr, T., DeFronzo, R.A., Kahn, C.R., Mandarino, L.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. Pan, D.A., Lillioja, S., Milner, M.R., Kriketos, A.D., Baur, L.A., Bogardus, C., Storlien, L.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A low dose euglycemic infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I rapidly suppresses fasting-enhanced pulsatile growth hormone secretion in humans. Hartman, M.L., Clayton, P.E., Johnson, M.L., Celniker, A., Perlman, A.J., Alberti, K.G., Thorner, M.O. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with acromegaly. Capaldo, B., Lembo, G., Rendina, V., Guida, R., Marzullo, P., Colao, A., Lombardi, G., Saccà, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective amylin inhibition of the glucagon response to arginine is extrinsic to the pancreas. Silvestre, R.A., Rodríguez-Gallardo, J., Jodka, C., Parkes, D.G., Pittner, R.A., Young, A.A., Marco, J. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Insulin impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation independent of insulin sensitivity or lipid profile. Campia, U., Sullivan, G., Bryant, M.B., Waclawiw, M.A., Quon, M.J., Panza, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of medium- and long-chain fatty acids on whole body leucine and glucose kinetics in man. Keller, U., Turkalj, I., Laager, R., Bloesch, D., Bilz, S. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of glimepiride on pancreatic beta-cell function under hyperglycaemic clamp and hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamp conditions in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clark, H.E., Matthews, D.R. Horm. Metab. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Relative contribution of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis to insulin-mediated glucose uptake. A dose-response euglycemic clamp study in normal and diabetic rats. Rossetti, L., Giaccari, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Partial gene deletion of endothelial nitric oxide synthase predisposes to exaggerated high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. Cook, S., Hugli, O., Egli, M., Ménard, B., Thalmann, S., Sartori, C., Perrin, C., Nicod, P., Thorens, B., Vollenweider, P., Scherrer, U., Burcelin, R. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The set point for maternal glucose homeostasis is lowered during late pregnancy in the rat: the role of the islet beta-cell and liver. Nolan, C.J., Proietto, J. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Metabolic effects of hydrochlorothiazide and enalapril during treatment of the hypertensive diabetic patient. Enalapril for hypertensive diabetics. Prince, M.J., Stuart, C.A., Padia, M., Bandi, Z., Holland, O.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Similar insulin sensitivity in NIDDM patients with normo- and microalbuminuria. Nielsen, S., Schmitz, O., Orskov, H., Mogensen, C.E. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. In vivo stimulation of the insulin receptor kinase in human skeletal muscle. Correlation with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during euglycemic clamp studies. Freidenberg, G.R., Suter, S.L., Henry, R.R., Reichart, D., Olefsky, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthase activation in vivo in man is related to low fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity. Freymond, D., Bogardus, C., Okubo, M., Stone, K., Mott, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of insulin treatment on insulin secretion and insulin action in type II diabetes mellitus. Garvey, W.T., Olefsky, J.M., Griffin, J., Hamman, R.F., Kolterman, O.G. Diabetes (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Long-term AICAR administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in rats displaying features of the insulin resistance syndrome. Buhl, E.S., Jessen, N., Pold, R., Ledet, T., Flyvbjerg, A., Pedersen, S.B., Pedersen, O., Schmitz, O., Lund, S. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in genetically obese (fa/fa) rats. Terrettaz, J., Jeanrenaud, B. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential effects of hyperinsulinemia and carbohydrate metabolism on sympathetic nerve activity and muscle blood flow in humans. Vollenweider, P., Tappy, L., Randin, D., Schneiter, P., Jéquier, E., Nicod, P., Scherrer, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of dexamethasone on hepatic glucose and insulin metabolism after oral glucose in conscious dogs. Chap, Z., Jones, R.H., Chou, J., Hartley, C.J., Entman, M.L., Field, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in normoglycemic first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes. Axelsen, M., Smith, U., Eriksson, J.W., Taskinen, M.R., Jansson, P.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases the hepatic secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in NIDDM. Cummings, M.H., Watts, G.F., Umpleby, A.M., Hennessy, T.R., Kelly, J.M., Jackson, N.C., Sönksen, P.H. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Syndromes of insulin resistance in the rat. Inducement by diet and amelioration with benfluorex. Storlien, L.H., Oakes, N.D., Pan, D.A., Kusunoki, M., Jenkins, A.B. Diabetes (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Ghrelin is not necessary for adequate hormonal counterregulation of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Lucidi, P., Murdolo, G., Di Loreto, C., De Cicco, A., Parlanti, N., Fanelli, C., Santeusanio, F., Bolli, G.B., De Feo, P. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: relation to insulin action. Loviscach, M., Rehman, N., Carter, L., Mudaliar, S., Mohadeen, P., Ciaraldi, T.P., Veerkamp, J.H., Henry, R.R. Diabetologia (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Resistin levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipoatrophy decrease in response to rosiglitazone. Kamin, D., Hadigan, C., Lehrke, M., Mazza, S., Lazar, M.A., Grinspoon, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. De Vries, R., Wolffenbuttel, B.H., Sluiter, W.J., van Tol, A., Dullaart, R.P. Clin. Lab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Disruption of Sur2-containing K(ATP) channels enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Chutkow, W.A., Samuel, V., Hansen, P.A., Pu, J., Valdivia, C.R., Makielski, J.C., Burant, C.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Tolbutamide does not alter insulin requirement in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Ratzmann, K.P., Schulz, B., Heinke, P., Besch, W. Diabetologia (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. A comparison of the artificial pancreas (glucose controlled insulin infusion system) and a manual technique for assessing insulin sensitivity during euglycaemic clamping. Ponchner, M., Heine, R.J., Pernet, A., Hanning, I., Francis, A.J., Cook, D., Orskov, H., Alberti, K.G. Diabetologia (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age. Coon, P.J., Rogus, E.M., Drinkwater, D., Muller, D.C., Goldberg, A.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Role of glucose-6 phosphatase, glucokinase, and glucose-6 phosphate in liver insulin resistance and its correction by metformin. Minassian, C., Tarpin, S., Mithieux, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Insulin effects on acetate metabolism. Piloquet, H., Ferchaud-Roucher, V., Duengler, F., Zair, Y., Maugere, P., Krempf, M. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
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