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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of the progestogens, gestodene, 3-keto desogestrel, levonorgestrel, norethisterone and norgestimate on the oxidation of ethinyloestradiol and other substrates by human liver microsomes.

A number of different progestogens, levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone (NET), gestodene (GSD), desogestrel (DG) and norgestimate (NORG) are used in combination with the oestrogen ethinyloestradiol (EE2) in oral contraceptive steroid preparations. All the progestogens are acetylenic steroids and previous studies have indicated the potential of acetylenic steroids to cause mechanism-based or "suicide" inactivation of cytochrome P-450. We have compared the effects of the different progestogens on EE2 2-hydroxylation (a reaction catalyzed by enzymes from the P-450IIC, P-450IIIA and P-450IIE gene families) and also the oxidative metabolism of other drug substrates (cyclosporin, diazepam, tolbutamide) by human liver microsomes. On coincubation with EE2 as substrate, GSD, 3-keto desogestrel (3-KD, the active metabolite of desogestrel) and LNG produced some concentration-dependent inhibition of EE2 2-hydroxylation (maximum 32% inhibition at 100 microM 3-keto desogestrel). Ki values determined for GSD and 3-KD were 98.5 +/- 12.3 and 93.2 +/- 10.3 microM (mean +/- SD; n = 4), respectively. Preincubation of progestogens in a small volume (50 microliters) incubation for 30 min in the presence of an NADPH-generating system enhanced the inhibitory potential of all the steroids (at 100 microM, inhibition was for GSD 39%, 3-KD 46%, LNG 46%, NET 51% and NORG 43%). Inhibitory effects were therefore comparable and also similar to the macrolide antibiotic troleandomycin. The most marked inhibition seen was of diazepam N-demethylation and hydroxylation by GSD (71 and 57%, respectively) and 3-KD (62 and 50%, respectively). In preincubation studies involving cyclosporin as the substrate, the order of inhibitory potency was GSD greater than 3-KD greater than NET greater than LNG for production of both metabolite M17 and M21. The results of the study indicate that all the progestogens in common use have the propensity to inhibit a number of oxidative pathways but there is little evidence for one progestogen being more markedly inhibitory than others.[1]


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