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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by concurrent administration of piroxicam, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug with D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, in diet.

The effect of three levels of piroxicam and three levels of D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) fed individually and in combination during the postinitiation phase of carcinogenesis was studied in male F344 rats to generate a data base on the efficacy and synergistic and additive effects of these compounds as inhibitors of colon carcinogenesis. The maximum tolerated dose of DFMO was determined in male F344 rats and found to be 5000 ppm in the AIN-76A diet. Piroxicam at levels of 25, 75, and 150 ppm and DFMO at concentrations of 400, 1000, and 4000 ppm (20, 50, and 80% maximum tolerated dose) in AIN-76 diet were tested individually and in combinations. At 7 weeks of age, while the rats were consuming the control diet (AIN-76A), all animals except the vehicle (saline)-treated controls were given a single s.c. injection of azoxymethane (CAS: 25843-45-2) at a dose level of 29.6 mg/kg body weight to induce intestinal tumors. One week after azoxymethane injection, animals were transferred to their respective experimental diets containing piroxicam and DFMO. Fifty-six weeks after azoxymethane injection, all animals were necropsied and colon and small intestinal tumor incidences and multiplicity were compared among the various dietary groups. Feeding of diets containing 75 and 150 ppm piroxicam or 1000 and 4000 ppm DFMO significantly inhibited the incidence (percentage of animals with tumors) of colon adenocarcinomas compared to that of control diet. The multiplicity (number of tumors/rat) of adenocarcinomas was significantly inhibited in animals fed the 25, 75, and 150 ppm piroxicam or 400, 1000, and 4000 ppm DFMO diets. Results analyzed by the linear regression method suggested a dose-dependent inhibition in colon adenocarcinoma incidence with increasing levels of piroxicam or DFMO. The incidence and multiplicity of colon adenocarcinomas were significantly inhibited in animals fed the diets containing combinations of 25, 75, and 150 ppm piroxicam and 400, 1000, and 4000 ppm DFMO. Piroxicam and DFMO administered together had a stronger inhibitory effect than did those given individually. Piroxicam and DFMO when administered individually had no significant inhibitory effect on colon adenoma incidence and multiplicity; in contrast, combinations of these compounds significantly inhibited colon adenomas. No consistent differences were found in the incidence and multiplicity of small intestinal tumors among the dietary groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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