The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanism of false-negative urine cannabinoid immunoassay screens by Visine eyedrops.

To drug-free urine specimens, we added the following drugs of abuse to give concentrations twice the cutoff value for positive test results: 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-carboxy-THC), oxazepam, secobarbital, morphine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, or phencyclidine ( PCP). Visine was then added. Although measured concentrations of several drugs were decreased in the presence of Visine, false-negative results were obtained only for 9-carboxy-THC for the EMIT-d.a.u. and TDx urine cannabinoid assays. Visine also decreased 9-carboxy-THC as measured by the Abuscreen assay. At low concentrations of Visine, false-negative cannabinoid results were attributable to the benzalkonium chloride ingredient of Visine. The added Visine was not detectable by routine urine analysis and had no effect on the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-drug conjugate used in the EMIT-d.a.u. assays. Moreover, analysis by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry showed no chemical modification or loss of 9-carboxy-THC in the Visine-adulterated urine specimens. However, Visine did increase the adhesion of 9-carboxy-THC to the borosilicate glass specimen containers. Results of ultrafiltration studies with Visine suggest that 9-carboxy-THC partitions between the aqueous solvent and the hydrophobic interior of benzalkonium chloride micelles, thereby reducing the availability of 9-carboxy-THC in antibody-based assays.[1]


  1. Mechanism of false-negative urine cannabinoid immunoassay screens by Visine eyedrops. Pearson, S.D., Ash, K.O., Urry, F.M. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities