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Chemical Compound Review

Adumbran     10-chloro-4-hydroxy-2-phenyl- 3,6...

Synonyms: Anxiolit, Lederpam, Nesontil, Oxazipam, Oxozepam, ...
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Disease relevance of Adumbran


Psychiatry related information on Adumbran


High impact information on Adumbran


Chemical compound and disease context of Adumbran


Biological context of Adumbran

  • Oxazepam esters. 1. Correlation between hydrolysis rates and brain appearance of oxazepam [17].
  • These results, together with those from the National Toxicology Program study showing no evidence of cytotoxicity or genotoxicity by oxazepam, suggest that oxazepam preferentially promotes cells that have activating lesions other than ras [18].
  • Bioequivalence studies in the elderly: a pilot study of two oxazepam dosage forms [19].
  • The effects of 10 and 30 mg oxazepam were assessed at pretest and 2.5 hours after drug administration on: (a) saccadic eye movements as proxy for the sedative effect, (b) acoustic startle response (ASR) as proxy for the anxiolytic effects, (c) memory, (d) reaction time tasks, and (e) subjective measurements [20].
  • These gene expression changes were confirmed for the livers from the oxazepam-treated mice in the present study, but were not good early markers for all the carcinogens in this study [21].

Anatomical context of Adumbran

  • 9. A survey of the in vitro formation of oxazepam glucuronides by microsomes from 37 human livers also showed that 10% of the livers displayed an abnormally high apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for the formation of the (S) glucuronide, but not of the (R) glucuronide [22].
  • Due to the absence of any navigational impairment, data suggest that prenatal exposure to oxazepam exerts long-term influence on adult learning capacities primarily through interaction with brain systems located outside the hippocampus [23].
  • The effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on the enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic oxazepam 3-acetate (rac-OXA) by microsomal and cytosolic esterases in rat intestinal mucosa were studied [24].
  • Outbred CD-1 mouse fetuses were administered either oxazepam (OX, 15 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day on embryonic days 12-16 and fostered at birth to untreated dams [25].
  • Inhibition of morphine glucuronidation by oxazepam in human fetal liver microsomes [26].

Associations of Adumbran with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Adumbran


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adumbran

  • The inpatient program combined comprehensive psychiatric and medical evaluation, detoxification with oxazepam, and the initiation of rehabilitation treatment [35].
  • The outpatients were evaluated medically and psychiatrically and then were prescribed decreasing doses of oxazepam on the basis of daily clinic visits [35].
  • Nine subjects were tested before, 1, 3, 7, and 24 h after a single-dose oxazepam vs placebo administration in a crossover design [36].
  • In this rapid, sensitive method for simultaneously determining diazepam and its biologically active metabolites--nordiazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam--in serum, 250 to 1000 microL of serum is extracted with ether and the extracted compounds are quantified by "high-performance" liquid chromatography on a Shimpack FLC-C8 microparticulate column [37].
  • Determination of intact oxazepam by electron capture gas chromatography after an extractive alkylation reaction [38].


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  9. A double-blind comparison of lorazepam and oxazepam in psychomotor retardation and mutism. Schmider, J., Standhart, H., Deuschle, M., Drancoli, J., Heuser, I. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Long v short half-life benzodiazepines in the elderly. Kinetics and clinical effects of diazepam and oxazepam. Salzman, C., Shader, R.I., Greenblatt, D.J., Harmatz, J.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of protein and carbohydrate content of diet on drug conjugation. Pantuck, E.J., Pantuck, C.B., Kappas, A., Conney, A.H., Anderson, K.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  13. Chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam disposition in cirrhosis. Sellers, E.M., Greenblatt, D.J., Giles, H.G., Naranjo, C.A., Kaplan, H., MacLeod, S.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Developmental expression of CYP2C and CYP2C-dependent activities in the human liver: in-vivo/in-vitro correlation and inducibility. Treluyer, J.M., Gueret, G., Cheron, G., Sonnier, M., Cresteil, T. Pharmacogenetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical pharmacokinetics and endocrine disorders. Therapeutic implications. O'Connor, P., Feely, J. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of diazepam and oxazepam: preference, liking and extent of abuse. Griffiths, R.R., McLeod, D.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A., Roache, J.D., Nowowieski, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Oxazepam esters. 1. Correlation between hydrolysis rates and brain appearance of oxazepam. Maksay, G., Tegyey, Z., Kemény, V., Lukovits, I., Otvös, L., Pálosi, E. J. Med. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Low frequency of H-ras mutations in hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas and in hepatoblastomas from B6C3F1 mice exposed to oxazepam in the diet. Devereux, T.R., White, C.M., Sills, R.C., Bucher, J.R., Maronpot, R.R., Anderson, M.W. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Bioequivalence studies in the elderly: a pilot study of two oxazepam dosage forms. Dreyfuss, D., Shader, R.I., Harmatz, J.S., Greenblatt, D.J. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of additional oxazepam in long-term users of oxazepam. Voshaar, R.C., Verkes, R.J., van Luijtelaar, G.L., Edelbroek, P.M., Zitman, F.G. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Unique patterns of gene expression changes in liver after treatment of mice for 2 weeks with different known carcinogens and non-carcinogens. Iida, M., Anna, C.H., Holliday, W.M., Collins, J.B., Cunningham, M.L., Sills, R.C., Devereux, T.R. Carcinogenesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Interindividual variability in the glucuronidation of (S) oxazepam contrasted with that of (R) oxazepam. Patel, M., Tang, B.K., Grant, D.M., Kalow, W. Pharmacogenetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Impaired acquisition of swimming navigation in adult mice exposed prenatally to oxazepam. Dell'Omo, G., Wolfer, D., Alleva, E., Lipp, H.P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of sodium fluoride and cobalt chloride on the enantioselectivity of microsomal and cytosolic esterases in rat intestinal mucosa. Yang, S.K., Chang, W.C., Huang, J.D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Limited changes of mouse maternal care after prenatal oxazepam: dissociation from pup-related stimulus perception. Petruzzi, S., Chiarotti, F., Alleva, E., Laviola, G. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of morphine glucuronidation by oxazepam in human fetal liver microsomes. Pacifici, G.M., Rane, A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Lorazepam and oxazepam kinetics in women on low-dose oral contraceptives. Abernethy, D.R., Greenblatt, D.J., Ochs, H.R., Weyers, D., Divoll, M., Harmatz, J.S., Shader, R.I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Interaction of disulfiram with benzodiazepines. MacLeod, S.M., Sellers, E.M., Giles, H.G., Billings, B.J., Martin, P.R., Greenblatt, D.J., Marshman, J.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass fragmentography compared for determination of tricyclic antidepressant drugs. Breutzmann, D.A., Bowers, L.D. Clin. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of the pharmacodynamics of several antiepileptic drugs in a direct cortical stimulation model of anticonvulsant effect in the rat. Hoogerkamp, A., Vis, P.W., Danhof, M., Voskuyl, R.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Benzodiazepines differently modulate EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT1 glutamate transporters expressed in CHO cells. Palmada, M., Kinne-Saffran, E., Centelles, J.J., Kinne, R.K. Neurochem. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Court, M.H., Duan, S.X., Guillemette, C., Journault, K., Krishnaswamy, S., Von Moltke, L.L., Greenblatt, D.J. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  34. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B15 pharmacogenetics: UGT2B15 D85Y genotype and gender are major determinants of oxazepam glucuronidation by human liver. Court, M.H., Hao, Q., Krishnaswamy, S., Bekaii-Saab, T., Al-Rohaimi, A., von Moltke, L.L., Greenblatt, D.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparative effectiveness and costs of inpatient and outpatient detoxification of patients with mild-to-moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Hayashida, M., Alterman, A.I., McLellan, A.T., O'Brien, C.P., Purtill, J.J., Volpicelli, J.R., Raphaelson, A.H., Hall, C.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Influence of benzodiazepines on auditory perception. Morand-Villeneuve, N., Micheyl, C., Gagnieu, M.C., Lemoine, P., Sebert, P., Collet, L., Veuillet, E. Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Liquid-chromatographic assay of diazepam and its major metabolites in serum, and application to pharmacokinetic study of high doses of diazepam in schizophrenics. Tada, K., Moroji, T., Sekiguchi, R., Motomura, H., Noguchi, T. Clin. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Determination of intact oxazepam by electron capture gas chromatography after an extractive alkylation reaction. Vessman, J., Johansson, M., Magnusson, P., Strömberg, S. Anal. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
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