The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular characteristics of cytostatic factors in amphibian egg cytosols.

In amphibians, zygotes microinjected with cytosol of unactivated eggs are arrested at metaphase of mitosis. The factor responsible for this effect has been designated 'cytostatic factor, (CSF)'. CSF is inactivated by Ca2+ addition to cytosols. During storage of the Ca(2+)-containing cytosols, a stable CSF activity develops. Therefore, the first Ca(2+)-sensitive CSF and the second Ca(2+)-insensitive CSF have been referred to as primary CSF (CSF-1) and secondary CSF (CSF-2), respectively. We have partially purified CSF-1, which had been stabilized with NaF and ATP, and CSF-2 from cytosols of Rana pipiens eggs by ammonium sulphate (AmS) precipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation or gel filtration, and investigated their molecular characteristics. CSF-1 was sensitive to protease, but resistant to RNAse, and inactivated within 2 h at 25 degrees C. CSF-1 could be sedimented in a sucrose density gradient from a fresh cytosol or its crude fraction precipitated at 20-30% saturation of AmS, showing the sedimentation coefficient 3S. When analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), all the proteins in partially purified CSF-1 samples entered the gel and were separated into numerous peptide bands. In contrast, CSF-2 was an extremely large molecule, being eluted from Sepharose columns as molecules larger than 2 x 10(6), and failed to enter the gel when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. It could be purified 40 times from cytosols. CSF-2 was a highly stable molecule, being neither inactivated nor dissociated at pH 11.5 or by 4M-NaCl and LiCl and 8 M-urea. It was also resistant to RNAse treatment. However, CSF-2 could be broken down into small peptides of variable sizes by trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and papain, but not by S. aureus V8 protease, although it was less sensitive to proteases than CSF-1. The dose-dependency test showed that the activity of CSF-2 is independent of its concentration and that an amount of CSF-2 could cause cleavage arrest earlier when injected into a blastomere in a larger volume.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities