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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Blastomeres


High impact information on Blastomeres

  • Here, we describe the discovery of a novel Wnt pathway component, Wntless (Wls/Evi), and show that it is required for Wingless-dependent patterning processes in Drosophila, for MOM-2-governed polarization of blastomeres in C. elegans, and for Wnt3a-mediated communication between cultured human cells [6].
  • We find that pal-1 activity is sequentially restricted to this blastomere [7].
  • By contrast, glp-1 mRNA is present in all blastomeres until the 8-cell stage [8].
  • Ectopic expression of gsc mRNA in ventral blastomeres as well as overexpression of gsc in dorsal blastomeres leads to cell movement toward the anterior of the embryo [9].
  • The pie-1 and mex-1 genes and maternal control of blastomere identity in early C. elegans embryos [10].

Biological context of Blastomeres


Anatomical context of Blastomeres


Associations of Blastomeres with chemical compounds

  • In the 2-cell, 4-cell and precompaction 8-cell embryos, cytoplasmic bridges between sister blastomeres were responsible for ionic coupling and the transfer of injected fluorescein as well as the transfer of injected horseradish peroxidase.In contrast, no communication was observed between blastomeres from different sister pairs [21].
  • DESIGN: DNA analysis for the IVS 4 + 4 A-->T (adenine to thymine) mutation in the FA complement C (FANCC) gene in single blastomeres, obtained by biopsy of embryos, to identify genetic status and HLA markers of each embryo before intrauterine transfer [22].
  • Eggs and blastomeres also die in this way when treated with STS and CHX, although they are less sensitive to this treatment than trophectoderm or inner cell mass cells whose sensitivity resembles that of other developing cells [23].
  • We further investigated the effect of reducing any [Ca2+]i gradients by microinjecting dibromo-BAPTA into the blastomere [14].
  • Lithium evokes expression of vegetal-specific molecules in the animal blastomeres of sea urchin embryos [24].

Gene context of Blastomeres

  • We propose that maternally provided pie-1(+) and mex-1(+) gene products may function in the early embryo to localize or regulate factors that determine the fate of the MS blastomere [10].
  • We propose that the maternally expressed skn-1 gene product acts to specify the fate of the EMS blastomere [25].
  • Biallelic expression of Igf2r was observed in single blastomeres, discounting the possibility of random allelic inactivation at this stage [16].
  • We have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans cdk-7 and have used it to analyze the role of cdk-7 in embryonic blastomeres, where cell cycle progression is independent of transcription [26].
  • We find that the Caudal-related homeobox factor PAL-1 can activate hlh-1 in blastomeres that either lack POP-1/TCF or that have down-regulated POP-1/TCF in response to Wnt/MAP kinase signaling [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Blastomeres

  • Microinjection of the mRNA encoding a catalytically inactive form of rat GSK-3 beta into a ventrovegetal blastomere of eight-cell embryos caused ectopic formation of a secondary body axis containing a complete set of dorsal and anterior structures [28].
  • Immunofluorescence analysis revealed assembled cytokeratin filaments in some 8-cell blastomeres, but not at earlier stages [29].
  • When we assessed early expression of the erythropoietic gene gata-1 in transplant recipients, we found that mutant blastomeres were as likely as wild-type blastomeres to give rise to gata-1-expressing cells in a wild-type host [30].
  • In the present study, injection of synthetic mRNA for synaptophysin into one of the early blastomeres of a Xenopus embryo resulted in elevated synaptophysin expression in 1 and 2 d embryos and in cultured spinal neurons derived from the injected blastomere, as shown by immunocytochemistry [31].
  • Our aim was to detect the patterns and levels of two messenger ribonucleic acids [mRNAs; beta-actin and interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI)] in single human blastomeres by RT-nested PCR and to compare possible variations in the gene expression both between different embryos and in multiple blastomeres within the same embryo [32].


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  2. Efficiency of polymerase chain reaction assay for cystic fibrosis in single human blastomeres according to the presence or absence of nuclei. Liu, J., Lissens, W., Devroey, P., Liebaers, I., Van Steirteghem, A.C. Fertil. Steril. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Mouse cloned from embryonic stem (ES) cells synchronized in metaphase with nocodazole. Amano, T., Tani, T., Kato, Y., Tsunoda, Y. J. Exp. Zool. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening in repeated implantation failure. Caglar, G.S., Asimakopoulos, B., Nikolettos, N., Diedrich, K., Al-Hasani, S. Reprod. Biomed. Online (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Wntless, a conserved membrane protein dedicated to the secretion of wnt proteins from signaling cells. Bänziger, C., Soldini, D., Schütt, C., Zipperlen, P., Hausmann, G., Basler, K. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Spatial and temporal controls target pal-1 blastomere-specification activity to a single blastomere lineage in C. elegans embryos. Hunter, C.P., Kenyon, C. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Translational control of maternal glp-1 mRNA establishes an asymmetry in the C. elegans embryo. Evans, T.C., Crittenden, S.L., Kodoyianni, V., Kimble, J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The homeobox gene goosecoid controls cell migration in Xenopus embryos. Niehrs, C., Keller, R., Cho, K.W., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The pie-1 and mex-1 genes and maternal control of blastomere identity in early C. elegans embryos. Mello, C.C., Draper, B.W., Krause, M., Weintraub, H., Priess, J.R. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. CeMyoD accumulation defines the body wall muscle cell fate during C. elegans embryogenesis. Krause, M., Fire, A., Harrison, S.W., Priess, J., Weintraub, H. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. In vivo analyses of integrin beta 1 subunit function in fibronectin matrix assembly. Darribère, T., Guida, K., Larjava, H., Johnson, K.E., Yamada, K.M., Thiery, J.P., Boucaut, J.C. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Maternal and paternal genomes function independently in mouse ova in establishing expression of the imprinted genes Snrpn and Igf2r: no evidence for allelic trans-sensing and counting mechanisms. Szabó, P.E., Mann, J.R. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Reducing inositol lipid hydrolysis, Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor availability, or Ca2+ gradients lengthens the duration of the cell cycle in Xenopus laevis blastomeres. Han, J.K., Fukami, K., Nuccitelli, R. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in Xenopus embryos begins at gastrulation and predominates in the ectoderm. Choi, Y.S., Gumbiner, B. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Allele-specific expression and total expression levels of imprinted genes during early mouse development: implications for imprinting mechanisms. Szabó, P.E., Mann, J.R. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Centrosome duplication continues in cycloheximide-treated Xenopus blastulae in the absence of a detectable cell cycle. Gard, D.L., Hafezi, S., Zhang, T., Doxsey, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. A truncated bone morphogenetic protein receptor affects dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Xenopus embryo. Suzuki, A., Thies, R.S., Yamaji, N., Song, J.J., Wozney, J.M., Murakami, K., Ueno, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Maternal beta-catenin and E-cadherin in mouse development. De Vries, W.N., Evsikov, A.V., Haac, B.E., Fancher, K.S., Holbrook, A.E., Kemler, R., Solter, D., Knowles, B.B. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Disruption of the cytokeratin filament network in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Emerson, J.A. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Gap junctional communication in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Lo, C.W., Gilula, N.B. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Preimplantation diagnosis for Fanconi anemia combined with HLA matching. Verlinsky, Y., Rechitsky, S., Schoolcraft, W., Strom, C., Kuliev, A. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Constitutive expression of the machinery for programmed cell death. Weil, M., Jacobson, M.D., Coles, H.S., Davies, T.J., Gardner, R.L., Raff, K.D., Raff, M.C. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Lithium evokes expression of vegetal-specific molecules in the animal blastomeres of sea urchin embryos. Livingston, B.T., Wilt, F.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. skn-1, a maternally expressed gene required to specify the fate of ventral blastomeres in the early C. elegans embryo. Bowerman, B., Eaton, B.A., Priess, J.R. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. cdk-7 Is required for mRNA transcription and cell cycle progression in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Wallenfang, M.R., Seydoux, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. The myogenic potency of HLH-1 reveals wide-spread developmental plasticity in early C. elegans embryos. Fukushige, T., Krause, M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta as a negative regulator of dorsoventral axis formation in Xenopus embryos. Dominguez, I., Itoh, K., Sokol, S.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytokeratin filament assembly in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Chisholm, J.C., Houliston, E. Development (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Cell-autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for the zebrafish gene cloche in hematopoiesis. Parker, L., Stainier, D.Y. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Overexpression of synaptophysin enhances neurotransmitter secretion at Xenopus neuromuscular synapses. Alder, J., Kanki, H., Valtorta, F., Greengard, P., Poo, M.M. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Single blastomeres within human preimplantation embryos express different amounts of messenger ribonucleic acid for beta-actin and interleukin-1 receptor type I. Krüssel, J.S., Huang, H.Y., Simón, C., Behr, B., Pape, A.R., Wen, Y., Bielfeld, P., Polan, M.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
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