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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Reactive oxygen in the tumor promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis.

Exposure of isolated SENCAR mouse epidermal cells to the tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in vitro resulted in the production of oxidant species detected as chemiluminescence. This oxidant response can be inhibited by superoxide dismutase and copper complexes but not catalase or scavengers of hydroxyl radical or singlet oxygen, suggesting that the oxidant is superoxide anion. Inhibitors of various parts of the arachidonate cascade affect the TPA-induced oxidant response in a manner that corresponds to their effects on in vivo tumor promotion experiments. Agents that inhibit lipoxygenase activity, i.e. nordihydroguaiaretic acid, benoxaprofen, but not agents that are cyclooxygenase inhibitors, i.e. indomethacin, are effective in suppressing the oxidant response to TPA. Phospholipase C but not phospholipase A2 or D produced an oxidant response kinetically similar to that elicited by TPA. The inhibitors of TPA-induced oxidants inhibited the phospholipase C response to the same extent, suggesting that TPA and phospholipase C may produce an oxidant species through a common mechanism, via phospholipid turnover-protein kinase C activation. The relevance of oxidant production to the tumor promotion process is suggested by the ability of exogenous xanthine/xanthine oxidase, a superoxide anion-generating system, to induce ornithine decarboxylase, a characteristic of TPA-treated cells. In addition, oxidant production is significantly lower in cells from the TPA-promotion resistant C57BL/6J mouse. These studies provide further support for a role for reactive oxygens in the tumor promotion process.[1]


  1. Reactive oxygen in the tumor promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis. Fischer, S.M., Cameron, G.S., Baldwin, J.K., Jasheway, D.W., Patrick, K.E. Lipids (1988) [Pubmed]
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